ယူအက္စ္ေအ က ေရကာတာ ဆည္ေတြကိုေလ့လာရေအာင္

File:Dams in the United States 2006.svg – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dams_in_the_United_States_2006.svg





National Atlas of the United States၂၀၀၆ ေျမပံု အရ (၅၀) ျပည္နယ္ က (၈၀၉၂) ေရကာတာေတြကို ေဖာ္ျပထားတာ

၂၀၀၅  ေျမပံု အရ    လက္ေအာက္ခံ  Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands အပါအဝင္ (၈၁၀၀) ေက်ာ္ ေရကာတာေတြကို ေဖာ္ျပထားတာ


ေရကာတာ အၾကီးကိုဆိုလိုတာ၊


အျမင့္ ၅၀ ေပ နဲ႕ေရေလွာင္ကန္ ၅၀၀၀ “ဧက ေပ” သို႕မဟုတ္

 ေရေလွာင္ကန္ ၂၅၀၀၀ “ဧက ေပ” 

နဲ႕အထက္ ရွိမွ အၾကီးလို႕သတ္မွတ္တာ


စစ္တပ္ကစုေဆာင္းထားတဲ့ေရကာတာစာရင္းအရ

 ေရကာတာ အလုံးစုံ (၇၉၀၀၀) လုံးေရရွိေၾကာင္း၊


(အံ့မခန္းႏိုင္ပါ၊ 

ယူအက္စ္က အင္အားၾကီးျပီး အရမ္းကို ခ်မ္းလဲ 

ခ်မ္းသာလာ တဲ့အေၾကာင္း တရပ္လို႕ျမင္သာႏိုင္ပါေပတယ္)


Lenin လီနင္တက္လာတုန္းက ယူအက္စ္ ကိုအမွီလိုက္ဘို႕ဆိုျပီး

Russia ႐ုရွား ကေရကာတာ ၾကီးေတြ ဒလၾကမ္း တည္ေဆာက္ေတာ့တာ၊

Dr Zhivago ေဒါက္တာဇီဗာကို႐ုပ္ရွင္ ဇာတ္ကားအဖြင့္႐ႉခင္းကိုဘဲ

ေျပးျပီးသတိရေတာ့တာ၊

ဘဝသံသရာ လို ေရကာတာၾကီး ကေန ေရလိႈင္းတံပိုး က 

အစဥ္မျပတ္အရွိန္ျပင္းစြာနဲ႕စီးဆင္းပန္းထြက္ေနတာ

 

8092 dams in 50 states

Information from the National Atlas of the United States, dated 2006.[1]:

The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a collection of information about dams in the United States and its territories, produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 

The USACE works closely with the Association of State Dam Safety Officials (ASDSO), the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and other State and Federal agencies to update and publish the NID. 

The National Inventory of Dams contains more than 79,000 dams, provided voluntarily by a wide variety of agencies. This information is used to track information on the country’s water control infrastructure and to allocate Federal resources for dam safety programs.

The Major Dams of the United States map layer is a subset of the 2005 National Inventory of Dams, extracted by the National Atlas of the United States®. 

It lists and describes more than 8,100 major dams in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 

Major dams include dams 50 feet or more in height, dams with a normal storage capacity of 5,000 acre-feet or more, and dams with a maximum storage capacity of 25,000 acre-feet or more. 

Descriptive information includes the dam name and location, the risk level associated with the dam, the purposes for which the dam was constructed, and the dam type.”


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ေအာက္ပါလင့္ခ ကိုႏွိပ္ပါ၊

ယူအက္စ္ေအ က ေရကာတာ ဆည္ေတြစာရင္းကိုၾကည့္နိင္၊

ျပည္နယ္တိုင္းမွာ ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားရွိၾကျပီး 

ဘတ္လို႕မဆုံးႏိုင္ေလာက္ေအာင္မ်ားတာ၊

ဒါေတာင္ Partial စာရင္းအခ်ိဳ႕အဝက္ျဖစ္တာ

List of dams and reservoirs in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dams_and_reservoirs_in_the_United_States

The following is a partial list of dams and reservoirs in the United States. There are an estimated 75,000 dams in the United States, impounding 600,000 mi (970,000 km) of river or about 17% of rivers in the nation.[1]

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ကယ္လီဖိုနီယား ျပည္နယ္မွာ ၄၀၀၀၀ ဧက ေပ အထက္ ရွိ

 ေရကာတာ ၾကီး ၁၂၃ လုံးရွိတာ၊လင့္ခ ကိုႏွိပ္ျပီးၾကည့္ပါ၊

Alphabetical List of California Dams 

(over 40,000 acre feet)

http://cee.engr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/lund/dams/DamList.htm

  All significant dams in California are inventoried in California Department of Water Resources Bulletin 17.  You can access this database on-line or download a text file of it. The 123 dams in California with storage capacities over 40,000 acre feet are listed below.

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၂၀၀၇ ကသတင္းတခုအရ ကယ္လီဖိုနီယား ျပည္နယ္မွာ

ေရကာတာ ၾကီးေတြ ထပ္လုပ္ဘို႕

Governor Schwarzenegger က

ေဒၚလာ ၄ ဘီလီယန္(သန္း ၄၀၀၀)

တန္ဘိုးရွိ ျပည္နယ္အစိုးရ ေငြစုေငြေခ်းလက္မွတ္ေတြထုတ္ဘို႕အဆိုျပဳခဲ့

http://www.internationalrivers.org/global-warming/new-dams-proposed-california

New Dams Proposed in California

By: 

by Steven L. Evans

Date: 

Thursday, February 1, 2007

Water pundits claim that the era of big dam building is over in the United States, but someone forgot to tell California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Schwarzenegger is proposing to invest $4 billion in general obligation and revenue bonds to build the Sites Reservoir in the Sacramento Valley and the Temperance Flat Dam on the San Joaquin River Gorge. His proposal promises to renew an ongoing battle between dam proponents and those who would like to see the state invest more wisely in water efficiency and recycling.

Governor Schwarzenegger says he believes that the new dams are needed to meet the needs of California’s growing population, which is expected to increase by 23% in the next two decades. The problem with this prediction is that it assumes that California will continue to use the same amount of water per capita as it does today….

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ယူအက္စ္ေအ အစိုးရ ဘူမိေဗဒ ေျမတိုင္းဌနထုတ္ 

ပညာေပးစာေစာင္ေတြကသိေကာင္းစရာပါ၊

လွ်ပ္စစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္နည္းအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးရဲ့အခ်ိဳးပမာဏ/အေရးပါပံု

( ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ နည္း က ခရမ္းေရာင္)

  ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္ပံု

တိုင္းျပည္အလိုက္ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္တဲ့ပမာဏ

ျပည္နယ္အလိုက္ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္တဲ့ပမာဏ

Hydroelectric power and water. Basic information about hydroelectricity, USGS Water Science for Schools.

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html

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Pictures: Hydroelectric generators

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyturbine.html

The generators (big, aren’t they?) in this picture are the key to getting electricity from falling water (hydrolectric power). These are very large electric motors containing magnets and wires, quite similar to any small motor, such as in an electric train set. Beneath these generators a metal shaft connected to a propeller is being turned by falling water.

As the propeller is turned by the water, the shaft turns, which then turns the components of the generator to produce electric power. Most electric power is produced in a similar way — generators don’t really care what is used to turn the shaft. Coal-fired power plants burn coal to heat water to produce steam, which turns the shaft; nuclear power plants use nuclear fuel to heat the water into steam.

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ေရေတြကိုေျပာင္းျပန္တင္တာက အေၾကာင္းရွိ၊

ဓာတ္အား ေတြထပ္ထုတ္ဘို႕ ေနာင္အတြက္ေပါ့ေလ၊

တအားမသုံးတဲ့အခ်ိန္ ဥပမာ ညခ်ိန္ က်မွ

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Hydroelectric Power: How it works, USGS Water Science for Schools

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html

Hydroelectric power: How it works

The theory is to build a dam on a large river that has a large drop in elevation (there are not many hydroelectric plants in Kansas or Florida). The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir. Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake. Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam. At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water. The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power. Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity to your home and mine. The water continues past the propeller through the tailrace into the river past the dam. By the way, it is not a good idea to be playing in the water right below a dam when water is released!

Pumped storage: Reusing water for peak electricity demand

Demand for electricity is not “flat” and constant. Demand goes up and down during the day, and overnight there is less need for electricity in homes, businesses, and other facilities. For example, here in Atlanta, Georgia at 5:00 PM on a hot August weekend day, you can bet there is a huge demand for electricity to run millions of air conditioners! But, 12 hours later at 5:00 AM …. not so much. Hydroelectric plants are more efficient at providing for peak power demands during short periods than are fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, and one way of doing that is by using “pumped storage”, which reuses the same water more than once.

Pumped storage is a method of keeping water in reserve for peak period power demands by pumping water that has already flowed through the turbines back up a storage pool above the powerplant at a time when customer demand for energy is low, such as during the middle of the night. The water is then allowed to flow back through the turbine-generators at times when demand is high and a heavy load is placed on the system.

 

Hydroelectric power. Advantages, from USGS Water Science for Schools

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hydroadvantages.html

 

Hydropower is the most important and widely-used renewable source of energy.

Advantages to hydroelectric power:

  • Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution
  • Water to run the power plant is provided free by nature
  • Hydropower plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Relatively low operations and maintenance costs
  • The technology is reliable and proven over time
  • It’s renewable – rainfall renews the water in the reservoir, so the fuel is almost always there

Disadvantages to power plants that use coal, oil, and gas fuel:

  • They use up valuable and limited natural resources
  • They can produce a lot of pollution
  • Companies have to dig up the Earth or drill wells to get the coal, oil, and gas
  • For nuclear power plants there are waste-disposal problems

Hydroelectric power is not perfect, though, and does have some disadvantages:/p>

  • High investment costs
  • Hydrology dependent (precipitation)
  • In some cases, inundation of land and wildlife habitat
  • In some cases, loss or modification of fish habitat
  • Fish entrainment or passage restriction
  • In some cases, changes in reservoir and stream water quality
  • In some cases, displacement of local populations

လင့္ခမ်ား ကိုႏွိပ္ၾကည့္ပါ၊

 

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