ပါကစ္စတန္ ျပည္သူေတြဟာ တနည္းမဟုတ္ တနည္း

ေရကာတာေတြကိုအားကိုးရတာ၊

၄င္းတို႕မွာ သိုေလွာင္ထားတဲ့ေရေတြက လယ္ယာကိုင္းကြၽန္းအတြက္

အသုံးျပဳ တဲ့အျပင္ လူေပါင္း ၁၆ သန္းအတြက္ လဲ

လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ေတြဖန္တီးေပးတာ၊

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Dams In Pakistan

http://hassam.hubpages.com/hub/Dams-In-Pakistan

 

The entire nation of Pakistan one way or the other depends on the dams. The water stored in the dams is not only used for the agricultural purposes but also to provide electricity to a nation of nearly 16 million people.

Below are the dams built on different rivers in Pakistan:

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Tarbela တာဘဲလား ေရကာတာ ဟာ Indus အင္ဒါစ္ ျမစ္ေပၚ မွာ

တည္ေဆာက္ထားျပီး ကမ္ဘာမွာ အၾကီးဆုံး “ေျမဖို႕” ေရကာတာ ျဖစ္တာ၊
ပါကစ္တန္ ေငြ ၁၈၅၀၀ သန္း ကုန္က်ျပီး ျပည္တြင္း အလုပ္သမား ၁၅၀၀၀
ျပည္ပ ႏိုင္ငံျခားသား ၈၀၀ တို႕ နဲ႕ ေဆာက္လုပ္တာ၊

၃၄၇၈ MW မီဂါဝက္ဒ္ လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ထုတ္လုပ္ႏိုင္လို႕
ဒီ ေရကာတာ ဟာ ပါကစ္စတန္ ရဲ့
အၾကီးဆုံး “လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္ေရကာတာ”  ျဖစ္တာ၊

ေရသိုေလွာင္တဲ့ဆည္က ၉၇ ကီလိုမီတာရွည္ ျပီး
အနက္ က ၁၃၇ မီတာရွိတာ၊

 

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Tarbela Dam

Tarbela dam is built on the river Indus and is the world’s largest earth filled dam. This dam was built in 1976 at a cost of 18.5 billion and almost 15000 Pakistani and 800 foreign workers worked on its construction.

It has the capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity which makes it Pakistan’s largest Hydro power station. It has a reservoir which is 97 km long and has a depth of 137 meters. This dam is located 103 km from the city of Rawalpindi.

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Mangla မန္ဂလာ ေရကာတာ ဟာ  Jhelum ဂီလြမ္  ျမစ္ေပၚမွာ တည္ေဆာက္ျပီး
ကမ္ဘာမွာ တတိယ အၾကီးဆုံး “ေျမဖို႕” ေရကာတာ ျဖစ္တာ၊
၃၃၅၃ မီတာရွည္ ျပီး ထိပ္ဆုံးအျဖား အထိ ၁၂၃၄ ေပ အျမင့္ရွိတာ၊
၁၉၆၀ တုန္းက အိန္ဒိယ နဲ႕ျမစ္ေရသုံးစြဲမႈ စာခ်ဳပ္ ခ်ဳပ္ျပီးေနာက္ ေဆာက္လုပ္တာ၊

ေရကာတာ အလယ္မွာ ျပသဒ္ တိုက္ ရွိျပီး ျမင္ကြင္းက်ယ္ ႐ႉခင္းေကာင္းမ်ား ၾကည့္လို႕ရတာ၊

ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္ႏိုင္ျပီး၊ ေရလႊတ္ ေပါက္ ေရထုတ္လမ္း ေၾကာင္း
႐ိုး႐ိုး နဲ႕အေရးေပၚ ႏွစ္ေပါက္ ရွိတာ၊ ၉ သိန္း cusecs ကူဗ စက္ကန္႕ ႏွုန္း နဲ႕ေရထုတ္ႏိုင္တာ၊

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Mangla Dam

The Mangla dam is the world’s third largest earth filled dam and is built on the river Jhelum. The dam is located 115 km south east of Rawalpindi and is 3,353 meters long and 116 meters high form the river bed.

This dam was built, just like the Tarbela dam, as a result of the Indus basin treaty of Pakistan and India in 1960.

The dam has an elevation crest of 1,234 feet and is designed to store 5.88 MAF of water that is used for generating power. A Gakkhar fort is built at the centre of the dam form a panoramic view of the lake can be viewed.

On the right side of the dam there are two spillways one of which has the capacity of 900,000 cusecs while the second is an emergency spillway.

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ပါကစ္စတန္ က ေဆာက္လုပ္ျပီးနဲ႕ ေဆာက္လုပ္ဆဲ ေရကာတာ နဲ႕ ဆည္ေတြ  ၃၄ လုံး ရွိတာ၊
 ေဆာက္လုပ္ဘို႕လဲ  အမ်ားၾကီး ရွိ ေသးတာ ၊

ေလာေလာဆယ္ ၁၁ လုံး ေဆာက္ ဘို႕ စီမံထားတာ၊

 

 

List of dams and reservoirs in Pakistan

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dams_and_reservoirs_in_Pakistan

 

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ေဆာက္လုပ္ျပီး barrages အဆင့္ဆင့္ ေရကာတာ ေတြ  ၁၆  လုံး ရွိတာ၊

 

List of barrages and headworks in Pakistan

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_barrages_and_headworks_in_Pakistan

 

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ပါကစ္စတန္ က ဧရာမ ေရကာတာ စီမံကိန္းေတြ

Mega Projects of Pakistan

http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/mega/megaprojects.html

 

၁၉၆၀ ခုႏွစ္ က Indus အင္ဒါစ္ ျမစ္ဝွမ္း ေရသုံးစြဲမႈ စာခ်ဳပ္

Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960
At the time of partition of India and Pakistan, there arose a dispute on the use of water resources since all rivers flowing in to Pakistan originated from India. The accord signed in 1960 at Karachi, Pakistan gave water of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab to Pakistan, whereas Ravi and Beas (Sutlej in Pakistan) were to be used by India. The treaty was signed by Pakistani president Ayub Khan and Indian prime minister Nehru.

Consequent to this agreed upon distribution, decision was taken to build to big water storages on the Indus (Tarbela Dam) and Jhelum (Mangla Dam) rivers. Thereafter, many small dams have also been added. In 90s, Ghazi Barotha project came up  without constructing a water reservoir for generating electricity.

 

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Pakistan ပဒီးယား မွ မန္ဂလာ ေရကာတာ 

ဒီ ေရကာတာ ဟာ ပါကစ္တန္ ရဲ့ ပဌမ ဦးဆုံး ဧရာမ စီမံကိန္း လုပ္ေဆာင္ခ်က္ျဖစ္တာ

8 May 1962  မွာ စ ျပီး   23 November 1967 မွာဖြင့္လွစ္တာ

 

Mangla Dam – The First Mega Project of Pakistan

 

http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/mega/mangla_dam.html

 

The Mangla Dam water storage and power generation project was the beginning of the construction of mega projects in Pakistan. The construction started on 8 May 1962 and was finally inaugurated on 23 November 1967. The dam was built by a international consortium, which besides the World Bank also included Austria, Canada, West Germany, New eland, the UK and USA.

The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for irrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generate electrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the reservoir. The project was not designed as a flood control structure, although some benefit in this respect also arises from its use for irrigation and water supply.

The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a power station. The main dam is 10,300 feet long and 454 feet high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97.7 square miles. The dam is 3,353 meters long and 116 meters high above the river bed. Its lake is spread over 100 kilometres.  The main dam is supported by two auxiliary dams, the Jari and Sukhian dams.

It is designed to store 5.88 MAF water and also used for power generation. Mangla had an initial storage capacity of 5.88 MAF in 1967, which has now been reduced to 1.97 MAF (34% of the initial). In view of its declining storage, recently a massive raising project is presently underway  to raise the level by 30 feet from the existing 1210 feet level at an approximate cost of Rs. 59 billion.

 

Egypt အီဂ်စ္ႏိုင္ငံက နံမယ္ေက်ာ္ Aswan Dam “အစြမ္” ေရကာတာၾကီးထက္ ႏွစ္ဆခြဲ ၾကီးတာ
၁၉၇၁ တုန္းက အိန္ဒိယ နဲ႕ပါကစ္စတန္ႏိုင္ငံတို႕ စစ္ပြဲမွာ ဆိုရင္
အိန္ဒိယေလတပ္ က ဒီ ေရကာတာ ကို ဗုံးၾကဲလို႕အနည္းငယ္ပ်က္စီးခဲ့တာ၊
ႏိုင္ငံတကာ က သေဘာတူညီမႈ ဥပေဒ က 
ေရကာတာ နဲ႕ ဆည္ၾကီးေတြကိုဗုံးမၾကဲရလို႕

ျပဌာန္းထား တာ ကို

မလိုက္နာ ဘဲ ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္တာပါ

 

Mangla Dam is one of the biggest earth filled dams in the world and is approximately two and a half times bigger than the Egyptian Aswan Dam. The dam was damaged partially during an Indian Air Force bombing in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when the dam was hit by the bombs, against the international convention that large water reservoirs should not be targeted in war.

 

 

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ဝီးကီးပဒီးယား မွ Mangla မန္ဂလာ ေရကာတာ အေၾကာင္း

Mangla Dam

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangla_Dam

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Pakistan ပဒီးယား မွ Tarbela တာဘဲလာ ေရကာတာ အေၾကာင္း

 

 

Tarbela Dam

http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/mega/tarbela_dam.html

 

Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, two  major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation (to make up for the shortfall of water due to water sharing formula agreed vide the treaty); one of these was o be built on River Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela.

Construction for the dam began in 1968, and continued until completion in 1976. The dam has a volume of 138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m³). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet (13.69 km³), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest and stands 147 meters above the Indus riverbed.. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonal fluctuations.

The dam cost in 1976 was Rs.18.5 billion. Its reservoir is 97 km long with a depth of 137 meters while total area of the lake is 260 square kilometers. From the initial storage capacity of 11.62 MAF in 1974, it has now reduced to 5.51 MAF in 2005 (i.e. 47% of initial capacity) due to silting.

Tarbela is considered as the largest earth-filled dam on one of the world’s most important rivers – the Indus. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity.

It provides nearly 30 percent of all the irrigation water available in dry season, 2100 MW of hydropower was to be initially generated as a by-product. By the year 1992, the generating capacity was raised to 3428 MW, with the 3rd extension comprising four more units of 432 MW capacity each. Read More …

 

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အေလးဆုံး နဲ႕ အၾကီး ဆုံး ေျမဖို႕ ေရကာတာ

heaviest dam(The Largest Earth Dam of Pakistan (Tarbela Dam))

Posted on December 7, 2011 in Civil Engineering, Water Resources Engineering | by admin

 

http://civiltechnology.net/civil-engineering-2/tarbela-dam-pakistan
6.    Power Station

According to the original plan, four (4) power units of 175 MW generating capacity each were to be installed on each of the tunnels 1, 2 and 3 located on the right bank with the ultimate installed capacity of 21,00 MW commissioned in the year 1977.

WAPDA carried out studies to tap the maximum power potential of Tarbela & found possible to install six (6) units, instead of four (4) only on tunnel NO.2.

Units 5 to 8 on tunnel NO.2 were commissioned in 1982, and units 9 and 10 in 1985. four power units of 432 MW capacity each were installed on tunnel NO.3.

Thus the total ultimate power potential of the project enhanced from 2100 MW as originally planned to 3478 MW.

Turbines                                   10 x 175 MW, 4 x 432 MW Installed capacity                      3478 MW Maximum capacity                    4200 MW

 

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ဝီးကီးပဒီးယား မွ Tarbela တာဘဲလာ ေရကာတာ အေၾကာင္း

 

Tarbela Dam

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarbela_Dam

 

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၂၀၁၂ ဇြန္ ၇ က သတင္း


  

 

ဧရာမ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရး စီမံကိန္းေတြကိုလုပ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္ စြမ္းအားရံပံုေငြ တရပ္ကို စုေဆာင္းဖန္တီး ဘို႕ေျပာ
ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ေရကာတာၾကီးေတြ ပါဝင္ၾက တာ၊
စြမ္းအား ထုတ္ စီမံကိန္းေတြ လမ္းပန္းဆက္သြယ္ေရး စီမံကိန္းေတြကို လုပ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္

ယင္း စြမ္းအားရံပံုေငြထဲကို တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံက ပိုမိုထည့္ဝင္ေပးဘို႕ ပါကစ္စတန္ သမတ က တိုက္တြန္း  

 

President urges setting up ‘Energy Fund’ for mega projects

Thursday, 07 June 2012 22:32

http://www.brecorder.com/top-news/1-front-top-news/61267-president-urges-setting-up-energy-fund-for-mega-projects-.html

 

BEIJING: President Asif Ali Zardari on Thursday called for greater Chinese investment in infrastructure development, particularly in mega energy projects, and proposed setting up of an Energy Fund for mega projects, including hydro-power projects….

 

တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံနဲ႕ ခိုင္မာေတာင့္တင္းစြာ ဆက္ဆံ ဘို႕ ဟာက

ပါကစ္စတန္ ႏိုင္ငံျခားေရးမူဝါဒရဲ့ အုတ္ျမစ္မဏ္ဋိဳင္တရပ္ 

ျပစ္တာလို႕ ထုတ္ေဖာ္၊

 

 

ပါကစ္စတန္ရွိ  ႏိုင္ငံေရးအဖြဲ႕ေတြ အစိုးရဌာနေတြ ျပည္သူေတြ အားလုံးက 

တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံ ကိုယုံၾကည္စိတ္ခ်ရျပီး ၾကံ့ခိုင္တဲ့မဟာမိတ္ ႏိုင္ငံလို႕ျမင္ၾကေၾကာင္း

ပါကစ္စတန္ သမတ က ဆက္လက္ျပီးထုတ္ေဖာ္ျပန္တာ၊ 

The President said that maintaining strong relations with China was the cornerstone of Pakistan’s foreign policy, and added that all political parties, state institutions and the people of Pakistan considered China a trusted friend and a strong strategic ally.

He said that the government was determined to take the relations in political, defence, security and economic spheres to “new heights” and his ninth visit to China was a manifestation of that policy….

The President appreciated China’s help in overcoming the Attabad lake problem in Gilgit-Baltistan.

He said the widening and up-gradation of Karakoram Highway as well as realignment of the segment impacted by the Attabad Lake would further facilitate and enhance trade, and people-to-people contacts.

He also welcomed China’s support for mega hydro projects and also for connectivity projects in Pakistan….

 

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ဧရာမ စီမံကိန္းေတြကို ဆက္လက္ျပီး အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ကူညီေပးဘို႕ တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကို ေတာင္းဆို

China asked to help develop mega projects
http://www.pakboi.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=588:china-asked-to-help-develop-mega-projects&catid=44:latest-news&Itemid=310

 

 

Islamabad – As Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda)
completes 28 per cent work on the 969MW Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower Project, the cost of which has gone up from Rs84 billion to Rs333 due to inordinate delay, Pakistan is pushing China to release the promised $500 million loan to bridge the shortfall of funds.

The cost of the project has increased after it was redesigned in the wake of the 2005 earthquake. Work on the project is progressing but the shortfall of funds and issues in land acquisition are still problems that need to be addressed to complete the project. …

 

 

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New hydro power projects discussed in JEWG

http://pakistantimes.net/pt/detail.php?newsId=23838
2012 June 08 သတင္း

လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားတုတ္ ေရကာတာ ၁၂ လုံး ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသုံး စီမံကိန္း ေတြေဆြးေႏြးခဲ့တာ….

 

Friday, June 08, 2012

‘Pakistan Times’ China Bureau

BEIJING (China): Chairman  Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) Shakeel Durring  has said that twelve new hydro power projects have been discussed in the Pakistan-China JEWG meetings for the mutual benefits of both sides…

There are also three additional projects in which Chinese can invest or could also work as contractors for civil, electrical and mechanical works, he added. All these 12 are hydro projects, he said adding that apart from that they talked on alternate energy and on coal fired projects, as Pakistan has the largest coal reserves in Thar. …

Durrani said therefore, mining is another area where there is hug potential for Chinese companies.Shakeel Durrani said that they discussed Thermal and laying transmission line projects as well.“So all in all there is vast scope for Chinese companies to work in Pakistan and for Chinese investors to make investment in our energy projects”, he noted. …

In these days, he said that out of 11 hydro power projects they have, Chinese contractors are supplying equipments for ten, so they have extensive cooperation with China. In our meetings, he said that they also exchanged views where the Chinese can come either as contractors or as investors. He pointed out that Chinese could also invest in power houses…

 

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://epmaps.wfp.org/maps/04166_20100812_PAK_A4_ODEP_Pakistan__Major_Dams_and_Barrages,_11_August_2010_-_LOW_RESOLUTION.jpg&imgrefurl=http://reliefweb.int/node/17522&h=2451&w=3500&sz=653&tbnid=Vng2jl1xy__3eM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=129&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dpakistan%2Bdams%2Bmap%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=pakistan+dams+map&usg=__rxdSVgNgg1iOVNhWKOEnrncgctc=&docid=gaD3vBVUjvrssM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MP3QT6r_M-by2QXf4biHDw&ved=0CGkQ9QEwAg&dur=1124

 

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Dams in Pakistan – YouTube

 

 

 

 

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