ပိုျပီးေပၚလြင္ေအာင္ ငလ်င္ကို “မီး” နဲ႕ဘဲအရင္ႏိႈင္းရမွာပါ၊

ရြာထိပ္မွာ “မီး မီး” လို႕ အသံကုန္ေအာ္လိုက္ရင္၊

ဘာျဖစ္သြားမလဲလို႕?

အေျဖကလြယ္လြယ္ေလးပါ၊

—————

ရြာသားေတြက စိတ္အလိုလိုေခ်ာက္ခ်ားလာျပီး

ေၾကာက္ဒူးေတြတံုလာေတာ့ကာ၊

ဒိအျပင္ ေျခႏွစ္ေခ်ာင္းလုံးေပ်ာ့ေခြယိမ္းယိုင္လာျပီး၊

မေျပးႏိုင္ မရပ္ႏိုင္ ျဖစ္လာေတာ့တာ၊

အရက္မူးသမား လိုပါဘဲ 

အဲဒီလို ခံစားခဲ့ ၾကံုခဲ့ၾကဘူးမွာပါ၊

 —————-
ရန္သူမ်ိဳး ငါးပါးထဲမွာ”မီး”ရန္ က ရန္သူတပါးအျဖစ္ပါဝင္တာလို႕
လူေတြကအသိအမွတ္ျပဳ မွတ္ယူၾကျပီးသားပါ၊
 “သူခိုး” ရန္ ဟာ ရန္သူမ်ိဳးငါးပါး ထဲက ေနာက္တပါးျဖစ္ေပမယ္လို႕၊
 “သူခိုး” ဲက ခိုးရင္ ပစ္စည္းက်န္ေသးတာ၊
 မီးေလာင္ရင္ ပစ္စည္းေတြက အကုန္ေျပာင္ျပီး မက်န္ေတာ့တာေၾကာင့္
 “မီးရန္” ကို ပိုဆိုးတာလို႕ေျပာၾကတာ၊
 ——————-

အဲဒီလိုပါဘဲ

“ငလ်င္ ငလ်င္” လို႕ ေအာ္ဟစ္လိုက္ရင္လဲ

လူေတြအေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားဟာအလန္႕တၾကား ျဖစ္ကုန္မွာပါ၊

“ငလ်င္ျပင္း” အၾကီးစားလို႕ဘဲျမင္ေယာင္မိလို႕၊

မိမိတို႕ရဲ့အသက္အိုးအိမ္အတြက္ အရမ္းကိုစိုးရိမ္ေခ်ာက္ခ်ားသြားေတာ့တာပါဘဲ၊

————————

 ဒါနဲ႕ထူးဆန္းတာက “ငလ်င္” ကို ရန္သူမ်ိဳးငါးပါးမွာဘဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္၊

“ေျခာက္ပါး” ဆိုျပီးေတာ့ “ေနာက္တိုး” ခ်ဲ႕ထြင္လို႕ဘဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ 

မသြတ္သြင္း မသတ္မွတ္ထားတာကိုသတိျပဳမိၾကမွာပါ၊

 ဘာေၾကာင့္ပါလိမ့္?

အေၾကာင္းရွိမွာပါ၊

———————-

 

 အေၾကာင္းရင္းမွာက ငလ်င္ဟာျပင္းထန္ေသာ္လည္းဘဲ 

တကယ္စိုးရိမ္ရတဲ့ ငလ်င္ ျပင္း ငလ်င္ၾကီး ဟာ ျဖစ္”ခဲ” တာ၊

 ေရွးေခတ္ အေနအထားဆိုရင္လဲ

 ျမိဳ႕ၾကီးျပၾကီးေတြမွာ ခပ္ျမင့္ျမင့္

အေဆာက္အအံုေတြမရွိသေလာက္ရွားျပီး၊

လူေတြကသိပ္သည္းစြာေနတာလဲ မရွိၾကပါ၊

ေတာလက္ေက်းရြာကေလးေတြမွာလို ခပ္ၾကဲၾကဲ 

 ခပ္ျပန္႕ျပန္႕ေနတတ္ၾကတာပါ၊

ဒီလိုနဲ႕ဘဲ ငလ်င္ေၾကာင့္ ေသေၾကပ်က္စီး

ဒဏ္ရာရတာကလဲ သက္သာခဲ့တာပါ၊

—————–

ဘယ္လိုဘဲေျပာေျပာကိုယ့္အသက္စည္းစိမ္ကို

လူတိုင္းကစိုးရိမ္ေၾကာင့္ၾက ၾကတာဟာ သဘာဝ ပါ၊

 ———–

တိုးတက္ေျပာင္းလဲလာတဲ့ကမ္ဘာ့အျမင္နဲ႕

တဘက္ကေနျပန္ၾကည့္ရင္လဲ၊

မီးကိုေၾကာက္ျပီး မီးကိုမသုံး”ရဲ”ဘဲေနလို႕ မ ရသလို၊

 မီးကို”သတိဝီရိယ”နဲ႕”အတိုင္းအတာ”နဲ႕”လိမ္မာစြာ”သုံးတတ္ရင္

မိမိအတြက္ အက်ိဳးမ်ားစြာျဖစ္ထြန္းႏိုင္တာလို႕

ေျပာစရာေတာင္မလိုပါ၊

———————–

အလားတူပါဘဲ၊ စက္ဘီးစီးသင္ခါစမွာ

လိမ့္က်ျပီးပြန္းပဲ့ ဒဏ္ရာရမွာကိုေၾကာက္လို႕

ဆက္ျပီးမစီးေတာ့ဘဲ၊သူမ်ားစက္ဘီးစီးေနတာကိုၾကည့္ျပီး

လမ္းေဘးမွာငုတ္တုတ္ထိုင္ငိုေနရသလိုပါ၊

 

ဒိအျပင္၊ေရကူးသင္ခါစမွာ ေရနစ္သြားမွာစိုးလို႕

ေရကူး ဆက္ မ သင္ေတာ့ဘဲ

သူမ်ားကူးေနတာကိုဘဲ ေဘးထိုင္ၾကည့္ေနရသလိုပါ၊

————-

ဒီလိုအေျခအေနမ်ိဳးေတြျဖစ္ေနဘို႕လဲ မ လိုပါ၊

ငလ်င္ကိုေၾကာက္႐ံုေလးနဲ႕၊ လူေတြကျဖဲေခ်ာက္ရုံေလးနဲ႕၊

ေတြေဝထိုင္းမိႈင္းျပီးလမ္းေဘးမွာထိုင္ငိုေနလို႕မျပီးပါ၊

အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳးနဲ႕ေက်ာက္ေခတ္လိုေန ေနဘို႕လဲ မ လိုပါ၊

————————-

ဘုရားေဟာတာရွိတယ္ မ ဟုတ္လား၊

သူမ်ားေျပာတိုင္း မယုံနဲ႕

ကိုယ္တိုင္ခ်င့္ခ်ိန္ျပီးမွယံု၊

————————

ဒါေၾကာင့္မို႕သူမ်ားက ငလ်င္ အေၾကာင္းကို

ဝါယမ စိုက္ထုတ္ျပီး လုံးဝ ရွာေဖြမေပးပါဘဲနဲ႕

အေမွာင္ခ် မ်က္ကြယ္ျပဳထားျပီး 

ဟိုေအာ္ ဒီေအာ္ ဟိုျဖဲေခ်ာက္ ဒီျဖဲေခ်ာက္

ေအာက္တန္းက်တဲ့ ဟိုဆဲ ဒီဆဲ ယံုထင္ေၾကာင္ထင္လုပ္ ေနတာက 

ဘာမွ ပညာလဲမတိုးပါ၊

ဗဟုသုတလဲမရပါ၊

———————

 ဒါေၾကာင့္မို႕၊ကမ္ဘာ့ပညာရွင္ေတြႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကသုေသတနလုပ္လို႕

အပတ္တကုတ္ စုစည္းရယူထားတဲ့ပညာအေမြအနစ္ေတြကေနရွာေဖြျပီး၊

ငလ်င္အေၾကာင္းကိုအနဲနဲ႕အမ်ားေလ့လာရဘို႕လိုလာတာပါ၊

———————————-

ခုဟာက ငလ်င္ကိုဘယ္လို “တိုင္းတာ” ရတာလဲ ဆိုတာကို

အရင္မိတ္ဆက္ေပး တင္ဆက္ရတာပါ၊ 

=============

ေျမငလ်င္ တိုင္တာနည္းRichter Scale အတိုင္းအတာ “ခ်ိန္ခြင္”/ ေပၾကိဳး

 

Richter အဆင့္ ၁၀ ဆင့္ရွိျပီး၊ ေနာက္က တဆင့္ဟာေရွ႕က တဆင့္ရဲ့ ဆယ္ဆ (ဆယ္လီ)Magnitude ထုထယ္ပမာဏ ရွိတာ၊

 ဥပမာ

Richter ၂ အဆင့္ ဟာ ၁ အဆင့္ ရဲ့ဆယ္ ဆ (၂ဆ မဟုတ္)

Richter ၃ အဆင့္ ဟာ ၂ အဆင့္ ရဲ့ဆယ္ ဆ (တဆခြဲ မဟုတ္)

Richter ၃ အဆင့္ ဟာ ၁ အဆင့္ ရဲ့ အဆတစ္ရာ (၃ဆ မဟုတ္)

Richter ၄ အဆင့္ ဟာ ၁ အဆင့္ ရဲ့ အဆ တစ္ေထာင္(၄ဆ မဟုတ္)

Richter ၇ အဆင့္ ဟာ ၁ အဆင့္ ရဲ့ အဆ တစ္သိန္း(၇ ဆ မဟုတ္)

———————————-

***Population လူသူ ေနထိုင္ရာေဒသ မွာဆိုရင္***

———————————–

အဆင့္ ၁ က ငလ်င္ဟာ တမိနစ္ကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ
အဆင့္ ၂ က ငလ်င္ဟာ တနာရီကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ
အဆင့္ ၃ က ငလ်င္ဟာ တေန႕ကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ
အဆင့္ ၄ က ငလ်င္ဟာ တပတ္ကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ

(အဆင့္ ၁ ကေန အဆင့္ ၃ ဟာ ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က ” ေသးငယ္ “ တာ)
အဆင့္ ၄ ဟာ ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က အသင့္သင့္နဲ႕လွ်ပ္တျပက္ တခဏခ်င္း ျဖစ္တာ

အဆင့္ ၅ က ငလ်င္ဟာ ၁၀ ႏွစ္ ကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ
အဆင့္ ၆ က ငလ်င္ဟာ အႏွစ္ ၃၀ ကိုတခါ လႈပ္တာ
(အဆင့္ ၅ ကေန အဆင့္ ၆ ဟာ ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က ၾကီးျပီးတခဏခ်င္း ျဖစ္တာ)  

အဆင့္ ၇ ဟာ အႏွစ္ ၅၀ ကိုတခါ လႈပ္ကာ
(ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က ျပင္းထန္ ျပီးတခဏခ်င္း ျဖစ္တာ )  

အဆင့္ ၈ ကေန အဆင့္ ၉ ဟာ  ႏွစ္ ၁၀၀ နဲ႕ ၃၀၀ ကိုတခါစီလႈပ္ၾကျပီး
ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က အလြန္ ျပင္းထန္တာ      

အဆင့္ ၁၀ ဟာ  ႏွစ္ ၁၀၀၀ ကိုတခါလႈပ္”ခဲ” ျပီး
ေျမၾကီးရဲ့ေရြ႕ေလ်ာလႈပ္ရွားမႈ က အတိုင္းထက္အလြန္ ျပင္းထန္တာ         

File:Earthquake Richter Scale.jpg – Wikimedia Commons

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Earthquake_Richter_Scale.jpg

 

 

Richter ရစ္တာ ၁ က magnitude ထုထယ္ပမာဏ ၁၀ [အေျခခံ ကိန္းဂဏန္း

logarithm ဂဏန္းသင္ခ်ာအရ(ပင္မ ၁၀ )] ကို ဆိုလိုတာ

 ရစ္တာ ၂ က  magnitude  ထုထယ္ပမာဏ ၁၀၀ ( တရာ)ကိုဆိုလိုတာ

 ရစ္တာ ၇ ဆိုရင္magnitude ထုထယ္ပမာဏ ၁၀ သန္း ( တကုေဋ) ကိုဆိုလိုတာ

 ရစ္တာ ၉ ဆိုရင္ magnitude  ထုထယ္ပမာဏ သန္း တေထာင္ (ကုေဋ တရာ) ကိုဆိုလိုတာ

 

 

Richter ၁ က ၁၀

Richter ၂ က ၁၀၀

Richter ၃ က ၁ ၀၀၀

Richter ၄ က ၁၀ ၀၀၀

Richter ၅ က ၁၀၀ ၀၀၀

Richter ၆ က ၁ ၀၀၀ ၀၀၀

Richter ၇ က ၁၀ ၀၀၀ ၀၀၀

Richter ၈ က ၁၀၀ ၀၀၀ ၀၀၀

Richter ၉ က ၁ ၀၀၀ ၀၀၀ ၀၀၀

 

Logarithm – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithm

=========

 တီထြင္သူCharles Richter ရဲ့ပံု

———————————————-

ေျမငလ်င္ကိုတိုင္းတာဘို႕ဆိုရင္ Richter Scale ရစ္တာေပၾကိဳးကိုဘဲသုံးတာကမ်ားတာပါ၊

ငလ်င္အမ်ားစုရဲ့ Magnitude ထုထယ္ ပမာဏကိုတိုင္းတာႏိုင္ဘို႕ ၁၉၃၄ မွာCharles Richterက

Richter Scaleရစ္တာခ်ိန္ခြင္ (ေပၾကိဳး) ကိုစတင္တီထြင္တာပါ၊

ငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးစုံတို႕ရဲ့ Wave လိႈင္းဂယက္ကဘယ္လိုဘဲ

အင္အားၾကီးၾကီးရစ္တာေပၾကိဳးက

ယင္းငလ်င္တို႕ရဲ့လိႈင္းဂယက္Amplitudeဗ်က္အက်ယ္အဝန္းကို

တိုင္းတာလို႕ရတာပါ၊

  
The magnitude of most earthquakes is measured on the Richter scale, invented by Charles F. Richter in 1934. The Richter magnitude is calculated from the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded for the earthquake, no matter what type of wave was the strongest.

 

The Richter magnitudes are based on a logarithmic scale (base 10). What this means is that for each whole number you go up on the Richter scale, the amplitude of the ground motion recorded by a seismograph goes up ten times. Using this scale, a magnitude 5 earthquake would result in ten times the level of ground shaking as a magnitude 4 earthquake (and 32 times as much energy would be released). To give you an idea how these numbers can add up, think of it in terms of the energy released by explosives: a magnitude 1 seismic wave releases as much energy as blowing up 6 ounces of TNT. A magnitude 8 earthquake releases as much energy as detonating 6 million tons of TNT. Pretty impressive, huh? Fortunately, most of the earthquakes that occur each year are magnitude 2.5 or less, too small to be felt by most people.

 

 

ေနာက္တဆင့္ကေရွ႕တဆင့္ထက္Magnitude လိႈင္းဂယက္ထုထယ္ပမာဏ (၁၀) ဆ ၾကီးေသာ္လည္း၊

 

ထုတ္လႊတ္လိုက္တဲ့အင္အားက ေရွ႕တဆင့္ ထက္ အင္အားေပါင္း (၃၂) ဆ ကိုထုတ္လႊတ္တာပါ၊

 

အဆင့္ ၁ က TNT ယမ္းဘီလူး ၆ ေအာင္စ (ounces) အင္အားကိုထုတ္လႊတ္ျပီး၊

 

အဆင့္ ၈ က TNT ယမ္းဘီလူး ၆ သန္း  တန္ခ်ိန္(tons) အင္အားကိုထုတ္လႊတ္တာ၊

 

 ကံေကာင္းလို႕ဘဲ၊ႏွစ္စဥ္လႈပ္ခါတဲ့ေျမငလ်င္အမ်ားဆုံးေတြဟာ(၂.၅) အဆင့္နဲ႕ ေအာက္ေတြျဖစ္ေနၾကတာ၊

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The Richter magnitude scale can be used to desribe earthquakes so small that they are expressed in negative numbers. The scale also has no upper limit, so it can describe earthquakes of unimaginable and (so far) unexperienced intensity, such as magnitude 10.0 and beyond.

Although Richter originally proposed this way of measuring an earthquake’s “size,” he only used a certain type of seismograph and measured shallow earthquakes in Southern California. Scientists have now made other “magnitude” scales, all calibrated to Richter’s original method, to use a variety of seismographs and measure the depths of earthquakes of all sizes.

Here’s a table describing the magnitudes of earthquakes, their effects, and the estimated number of those earthquakes that occur each year.

ေျမငလ်င္ကိုတိုင္းတဲ့ ေနာက္တနည္းက Mercalliခ်ိန္ခြင္(ေပၾကိဳး)နည္းျဖစ္ျပီး၊

၁၉၀၂ မွာ Giuseppe Mercalli ကတီထြင္ခဲ့တာ၊

ယင္းနည္းက ငလ်င္လႈပ္တာကိုၾကံုေတြ႕ခံစားခဲ့သူေတြကိုလိုက္ျပီး

 ငလ်င္ရဲ့အင္အားကိုခန္႕မွန္းခိုင္းတဲ့နည္းဘဲ၊

တဦးနဲ႕တဦးေျပာတာမတူႏိုင္လို႕သိပ္ပံနည္းမက်ပါ၊

Another way to measure the strength of an earthquake is to use the Mercalli scale. Invented by Giuseppe Mercalli in 1902, this scale uses the observations of the people who experienced the earthquake to estimate its intensity.

The Mercalli scale isn’t considered as scientific as the Richter scale, though. Some witnesses of the earthquake might exaggerate just how bad things were during the earthquake and you may not find two witnesses who agree on what happened; everybody will say something different. The amount of damage caused by the earthquake may not accurately record how strong it was either.

အပ်က္အစီးေတြက မ်ားတာ နဲတာက၊

အေဆာက္အအံုရဲ့ ဒီဇိုင္းပုံစံ၊

ငလ်င္ရဲ့ဗဟိုရ္ခ်က္မ ရဲ့အကြာအေဝး၊

အေဆာက္အအံု ေအာက္ခံ ေျမၾကီးအမ်ိဳးအစား

(ေက်ာက္တုံး၊ဖုံအမိႈက္၊သဲ)

တို႕ေပၚမူတည္တာပါ၊

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Some things that affect the amount of damage that occurs are:

  • the building designs,
  • the distance from the epicenter,
  • and the type of surface material (rock or dirt) the buildings rest on.

Different building designs hold up differently in an earthquake and the further you are from the earthquake, the less damage you’ll usually see. Whether a building is built on solid rock or sand makes a big difference in how much damage it takes. Solid rock usually shakes less than sand, so a building built on top of solid rock shouldn’t be as damaged as it might if it was sitting on a sandy lot.

How Are Earthquake Magnitudes Measured?

http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/intensity.html

Earthquake Magnitude Scale

၂.၅ အဆင့္ ေျမငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးက တႏွစ္ကို

အၾကိမ္ ၉၀၀၀၀၀ (၉ သိန္း) ၾကိမ္ လႈပ္ခါတာကို

လူေတြက မခံစားမသိလိုက္ေသာ္လည္း

စက္ကရိယာကတိုင္းျပီးမွတ္တမ္းျပဳႏိုင္တာ၊

၂.၅ မွ ၅.၄ အဆင့္ ေျမငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးက တႏွစ္ကို

အၾကိမ္ ၃၀၀၀၀ (၃ေသာင္း) ၾကိမ္ လႈပ္ခါတာကို

လူေတြက သိလိုက္တာ၊ အပ်က္အစီး အနည္းငယ္ပါ၊

၅.၅ မွ ၆.၀ အဆင့္ ေျမငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးက တႏွစ္ကို

အၾကိမ္ ၅၀၀ (ငါးရာ) ၾကိမ္ လႈပ္ခါတာက

အေဆာက္အဦးေတြ အပ်က္အစီး အနည္းငယ္ပါ။

၆.၁ မွ ၆.၉ အဆင့္ ေျမငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးက တႏွစ္ကို

အၾကိမ္ ၁၀၀ (တစ္ရာ) ၾကိမ္ လႈပ္ခါတာက

လူအမ်ားအျပား ထူထပ္တဲ့ေဒသမွာအပ်က္အစီး အမ်ားအျပားျဖစ္ေပၚႏိုင္တာပါ

၇.၀ မွ ၇.၉ အဆင့္ ေျမငလ်င္ မ်ိဳးက တႏွစ္ကို

အၾကိမ္ ၂၀ (ႏွစ္ဆယ္) လႈပ္ခါတာက

ငလ်င္အၾကီးစားျဖစ္ျပီး အပ်က္အစီးၾကီးေလးတာပါ၊

၈.၀ အဆင့္နဲ႕အထက္ေျမငလ်င္မ်ိဳးက ငါးႏွစ္မွရွစ္ႏွစ္ကာလမွာ

တၾကိမ္သာ လႈပ္ခါတာ

ဧရာမငလ်င္ျဖစ္ျပီး ၄င္းရဲ့ဗဟိုရ္ခ်က္မအနားက

လူေနရပ္ရြာေတြကိုလုံးဝဖ်က္ဆီးႏိုင္တာပါ

Magnitude

Earthquake Effects

Estimated Number

Each Year

2.5 or less

Usually not felt, but can be recorded by seismograph.

900,000

2.5 to 5.4

Often felt, but only causes minor damage.

30,000

5.5 to 6.0

Slight damage to buildings and other structures.

500

6.1 to 6.9

May cause a lot of damage in very populated areas.

100

7.0 to 7.9

Major earthquake. Serious damage.

20

8.0 or greater

Great earthquake. Can totally destroy communities near the epicenter.

One every 5 to 10 years

ေျမငလ်င္ေတြကိုေအာက္ပါအမ်ိဳးအစားအတိုင္းလဲ

သတ္မွတ္ၾကတာ၊

Earthquake Magnitude Classes

Earthquakes are also classified in categories ranging from minor to great, depending on their magnitude.

Class

Magnitude

Great

8 or more

Major

7 – 7.9

Strong

6 – 6.9

Moderate

5 – 5.9

Light

4 – 4.9

Minor

3 -3.9

Earthquakes Magnitude Scale and Classes

http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/magnitude.html 

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In truth, however, our planet’s seemingly stable surface is made up of enormous pieces of rock that are slowly but constantly moving. Those pieces continually collide with and rub against one another, and sometimes their edges abruptly crack or slip and suddenly release huge amounts of pent-up energy. These unsettling events are called earthquakes, and small ones happen across the planet every day, without people even noticing. But every so often, a big earthquake occurs, and when that happens, the pulses of energy it releases, called seismic waves, can wreak almost unfathomable destruction and kill and injure many thousands of people [source: Bolt]…..

Though earthquakes have terrorized people since ancient times, it’s only been in the past 100 years that scientists have come to understand what causes them, and to develop technology to detect their origin and measure their magnitude. In addition, engineers and architects have worked to make buildings more resistant to earthquake shocks. Someday, researchers hope to find a way to predict earthquakes in advance, and perhaps even control them…..

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HowStuffWorks “How Earthquakes Work”

http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake.htm

Richter Scale

Whenever a major earthquake is in the news, you’ll probably hear about its Richter scale rating. You might also hear about its Mercalli Scale rating, though this isn’t discussed as often. These two ratings describe the power of the earthquake from two different perspectives.

The most common standard of measurement for an earthquake is the Richter scale, developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology. The Richter scale is used to rate the magnitude of an earthquake — the amount of energy it released. This is calculated using information gathered by a seismograph.

The Richter scale is logarithmic, meaning that whole-number jumps indicate a tenfold increase. In this case, the increase is in wave amplitude. That is, the wave amplitude in a level 6 earthquake is 10 times greater than in a level 5 earthquake, and the amplitude increases 100 times between a level 7 earthquake and a level 9 earthquake. The amount of energy released increases 31.7 times between whole number values.

As we previously noted, most earthquakes are extremely small. A majority of quakes register less than 3 on the Richter scale; these tremors, called microquakes, aren’t even felt by humans.

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၂.၀ အဆင့္နဲ႕အထက္ရွိ ငလ်င္လႈပ္တဲ့အၾကိမ္ေပါင္း ၁.၄ သန္းအၾကိမ္အနက္က 

 ငလ်င္အၾကိမ္ေပါင္း (၁၅) ၾကိမ္ကသာ အဆင့္(၇) နဲ႕အထက္စာရင္းထဲဝင္လို႕

ေသးငယ္နဲပါးတဲ့အစိတ္အပိုင္းျဖစ္ေနတာ၊

အဆင့္ (၇) က်မွသာ ငလ်င္က ၾကီးတယ္လို႕သတ္မွတ္ၾကတာ၊

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Only a tiny portion —15 or so of the 1.4 million quakes that register above 2.0 — register at 7 or above, which the threshold for a quake being considered major [source: USGS]. The biggest quake in recorded history was the 9.5 quake that struck Chile in 1960. It killed nearly 1,900 people and caused about $4 billion in damage in 2010 dollars [source: USGS]. Generally, you won’t see much damage from earthquakes that register below 4 on the Richter scale.

Richter ratings only give you a rough idea of the actual impact of an earthquake, though. As we’ve seen, an earthquake’s destructive power varies depending on the composition of the ground in an area and the design and placement of man-made structures. The extent of damage is rated on the Mercalli scale. Mercalli ratings, which are given as Roman numerals, are based on largely subjective interpretations. A low intensity earthquake, one in which only some people feel the vibration and there is no significant property damage, is rated as a II. The highest rating, a XII, is applied to earthquakes in which structures are destroyed, the ground is cracked and other natural disasters, such as landslides or tsunamis, are initiated.

Richter scale ratings are determined soon after an earthquake, once scientists can compare the data from different seismograph stations. Mercalli ratings, on the other hand, can’t be determined until investigators have had time to talk to many eyewitnesses to find out what occurred during the earthquake. Once they have a good idea of the range of damage, they use the Mercalli criteria to decide on an appropriate rating.

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က်စ္လစ္သိပ္သည္းမႈမရွိဘဲ သဲေျမလိုခပ္ပြပြခပ္လြတ္လြတ္ေနရာမ်ိဳးဆိုရင္

ငလ်င္ဒဏ္ကပိုျဖစ္လြယ္တာ

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LIQUEFACTION

In some areas, severe earthquake damage is the result of liquefaction of soil. In the right conditions, the violent shaking from an earthquake will make loosely packed sediments and soil behave like a liquid. When a building or house is built on this type of sediment, liquefaction will cause the structure to collapse more easily. Highly developed areas built on loose ground material can suffer severe damage from even a relatively mild earthquake. Liquefaction can also cause severe mudslides.

 

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South Dakota Geological Survey Richter Scale Graphic Representation

http://www.sdgs.usd.edu/publications/maps/earthquakes/rscale.htm

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aq

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အင္ဂလန္က ကေလးအတြက္ ငလ်င္သင္တန္းဗီဒီယို

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တႏွစ္ကိုငလ်င္အၾကိမ္ ၅ သိန္း ရွိျပီး၊လူေတြသတိျပဳမိႏိုင္တာက ငလ်င္အၾကိမ္က ၁ သိန္းသာ၊

 အဲဒီသတိျပဳမိတဲ့ငလ်င္အငယ္စားေတြဟာCalifornia, Alaska, Turkey,… Italy, …Indonesia, New Zealand, Japanမွာျဖစ္ၾကေသာ္လည္းဘယ္ေနရာမဆိုဥပမာNew York, London, Australiaအပါအဝင္မွာလဲျဖစ္ႏိုင္ၾကတာပါ၊

Size and Frequency of Occurrence.

There are around 500,000 earthquakes each year. About 100,000 of these can actually be felt.  Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Guatemala. Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, the Azores in Portugal, Turkey, New Zealand, Greece, Italy, and Japan, but earthquakes can occur almost anywhere, including New York City, London, and Australia.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity)

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ယူေကမွာလဲႏွစ္စဥ္ျဖစ္၊၁၀ႏွစ္တခါျဖစ္၊ႏွစ္တရာမွာတခါျဖစ္တဲ့ငလ်င္အစားစားေတြရွိၾကတာ၊

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United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are: an earthquake of 3.7 – 4.6 every year, an earthquake of 4.7 – 5.5 every 10 years, and an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.This is an example of the Gutenberg-Richter law.

What is the Richter scale? « The mishunderstanding…

http://mishunderstanding.wordpress.com/2011/01/23/what-is-the-richter-scale/

Uploaded on Dec 26, 2008

The Richter scale works by allowing scientists to measure the size and intensity of an earthquake. Find out how the Richter scale works with tips from a math and science teacher in this free video on earthquakes.

How Things Work : How Does the Richter Scale Work? – YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVqYg4NPvC4

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Richter Scale Explained

The Richter scale was developed by Charles Richter of the California Institute of Technology in 1935. It is also known as Richter magnitude scale. It is used to measure the intensity of the earthquake. A single number is assigned to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. This assignment is made after calculations using information gathered by a seismograph. 

The magnitude is a base-10 logarithmic scale. In other words, when there is a whole number jump, it indicates a ten-fold increase in the magnitude of the earthquake. Therefore, an earthquake with 6 on the Richter scale is 10 times greater than an earthquake with 5 on the same. Therefore, the increase in intensity between an earthquake of 5 and 7 on the Richter scale is 100 times. Let us look at a few facts about earthquakes and their numbers on the Richter scale. For kids, this might prove to be useful in gauging the strength and fury of an earthquake.

There are other factors which also have a role to play for example, local surface and subsurface geologic conditions, etc. To explain this better, if a particular area has unstable ground, such as sand or clay, it is very likely to experience more noticeable effects in comparison to an area at an equal distance from the earthquake’s epicenter, but which has firm ground, like granite, marble, etc.

Magnitude of Earthquake on Richter Scale

Description of the Earthquake

Effects of the Earthquakes

Occurrence Frequency

Less than 2.0

Micro

The earthquake is not felt

Approximately, 8000 per day

2.0 to 2.9

Minor

Normally not felt, but recorded

Approximately 1000 per day

3.0 to 3.9

Minor

Normally felt, but rarely are any damages caused

Approximately 49,000 per year

4.0 to 4.9

Light

Often felt indoor, with shaking of indoor items and rattling noises. Significant damage is not caused

Approximately 6200 per year

5.0 to 5.9

Moderate

Major damage can be caused to poorly constructed buildings and little damage to well constructed buildings

Approximately 800 per year

6.0 to 6.9

Strong

It can be very destructive in areas as far as 160 kilometers from the epicenter in populated areas

Approximately 120 per year

7.0 to 7.9

Major

It is known to cause severe damage over larger areas

Approximately 18 per year

8.0 to 8.9

Great

It can cause severe damage in several hundred miles across

Approximately 1 per year

9.0 to 9.9

Great

Devastating in areas for several thousands of miles

Approximately 1 per 20 years

10.0 +

Epic

Has never been recorded

Extremely low and cannot be estimated

 

“ကေလးေတြအတြက္Richter ရစ္တာေပၾကိဳးျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ေတြ ” ဆိုတဲ့ဗီဒီယို

Richter Scale Facts for Kids

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/richter-scale-for-kids.html

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အဆင့္ ၃.၄ ထက္ငယ္ တာ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၈ သိန္းရွိျပီးငလ်င္တိုင္းတဲ့

Seismometersကရိယာကဘဲသိႏိုင္တာပါ၊

 ၃.၄ – ၄.၂ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၃ ေသာင္း ရွိျပီး အိမ္တြင္းမွာသိသာရုံပါ၊

၄.၃ – ၄.၈ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၄၈၀၀ ရွိျပီး လူေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားကသတိထားမိကာ၊ျပဴတင္းေပါက္မ်ားကလႈပ္လာတာပါ

၄.၉ – ၅.၄ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၁၄၀၀ ရွိျပီး လူတိုင္းသတိထားမိကာ၊ပန္ကန္ျပားကကြဲႏိုင္တံခါး႐ိုက္လႈပ္ရွားလာ၊

၅.၅ – ၆.၁ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၅၀၀ ရွိျပီး အေဆာက္အဦးအနည္းငယ္ပ်က္စီးကာ၊ပလာစတာအက္ အုဠ္ခဲက်လာတာ၊

၆.၂ – ၆.၉ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ အၾကိမ္ ၁၀၀ ရွိျပီး အေဆာက္အဦးေတာ္ေတာ္ပ်က္စီးကာ၊မီးခိုးေခါင္တိုင္က်၊အိမ္ကလႈပ္လာတာ၊

၇.၀ – ၇.၃ က ႏွစ္စဥ္  ၁၅ ၾကိမ္ရွိျပီး အေဆာက္အဦးမ်ားစြာပ်က္စီးကာ၊ တံတားေတြတြန္႕လိမ္၊ နံရံေတြကြဲ၊အိမ္ေတြျပိဳႏိုင္တာ၊

၇.၄ – ၇.၉ က ႏွစ္စဥ္ ၄ ၾကိမ္ ရွိျပီး အလြန္အကြၽန္ပ်က္စီးကာ အေဆာက္အဦးအမ်ားစုကျပိဳက်တာ၊

 အဆင့္ ၈ အထက္ဆိုရင္  ၅ ႏွစ္ သို႕မဟုတ္ ၁၀ ႏွစ္ မွာ တခါသာျဖစ္ခါ၊

လုံးဝပ်က္စီးတာ၊

ေရလိႈင္းေတြတက္လာတာကိုျမင္ရျပီး

ပစ္စည္းေတြေလထုေပၚလႊင့္တက္သြားတာ

Scales for measuring earthquakes…

The Richter Scale is the best known scale for measuring the magnitude of earthquakes. The magnitude value is proportional to the logarithm of the amplitude of the strongest wave during an earthquake. A recording of 7, for example, indicates a disturbance with ground motion 10 times as large as a recording of 6. The energy released by an earthquake increases by a factor of 30 for every unit increase in the Richter scale. The table below gives the frequency of earthquakes and the effects of the earthquakes based on this scale

These effects are assuming a shallow earthquake in a populated area. Earthquakes of large magnitude do not necessarily cause the most intense surface effects. The effect in a given region depends to a large degree on local surface and subsurface geologic conditions. An area of unstable ground (sand, clay, or other unconsolidated materials), for example, is likely to experience much more noticeable effects than an area equally distant from an earthquake’s epicentre but underlain by firm ground such as granite.

ယူေကေက်ာင္းကငလ်င္တိုင္းတာေရးပညာေပးlinkလင့္ခ

Richter scale

http://schools.matter.org.uk/content/Seismology/richterscale.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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