‘တ႐ုပ္ဆည္အလြဲမ်ား”ဆိုတဲ့ဦးမ်ိဳးဝင္းသူရဲ့ေဆာင္းပါးအရွည္ၾကီးကိုေဖ့ဘုက္မွတ္ခ်က္ေတြအေနနဲ႕တင္လာပါတယ္၊
၊၎ေဆာင္းပါးကိုေဆြးေႏြးမယ္၊

၊ျပီးေတာ့၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကဖူလံုျပီးလူေတြကၾကိဳးစားလို႕ဝူးဟန္ေဒသကတိုးတက္ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးလာတာေတြကိုလိုက္ၾကည့္မယ္၊
၊ေရကာတာနဲ႕ပတ္သက္ျပီးေျပာမယ္ဆိုရင္၊ေဆာင္းပါးရွင္ဦးဝင္းမ်ိဳးသူကညြန္ခ်ဳပ္ေဟာင္းဦးထြန္းလြင္နဲ႕ေရႊကေလာင္ရွင္ဦးသန္းထြဋ္ေအာင္တို႕
၊ထက္သေဘာထားအျမင္က်ယ္ပါတယ္၊သူတို႕ႏွစ္ဦးကေရကာတာကိုမလုပ္ေစခ်င္ပါ၊လုံးဝကန္႕ကြက္တယ္၊

    

 


ဦးဝင္းမ်ိဳးသူကေျပာတာကေရကာတာေဆာက္လုပ္တာကိုမဆန္႕က်င္ပါ၊အားနဲခ်က္ေတြကိုျပဳျပင္ထိန္းသိမ္းႏိုင္ဘို႕ကိုသူက
။ေတာင္းဆိုေနတာပါ၊



၊သို႕ပင္ျငားလည္း၊အမ်ားျပည္သူအက်ိဳးနဲ႕ပတ္သက္ေနလို႕ဦးမ်ိဳးဝင္းသူရဲ့၊ေဆာင္းပါးထဲက
၊အမွားေတြကိုေဖာ္ထုတ္ရပါမယ္၊

 


 



၁၊တင္ထားတဲ့ပံုကသူေဆြးေႏြးေနတဲ့ဇီပင္ပူးေရကာတာပံုမဟုတ္ပါ၊
၊ျမစ္က်ဥ္း၃တန္ေရကာတာၾကီးဆိုတာလူေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားကေတာင္သိေနပါတယ္၊
ဇီပင္ပူးေရကာတာကိုေအာက္တြင္တင္လိုက္ပါတယ္၊

 

၂၊ဇိပင္ပူးေရကာတာလုပ္လို႕ေရလဲျဖည့္ေရာ္ဝင္န္ေခ်ာင္ငလ်င္လႈပ္ပါေရာဆိုျပီးလူေပါင္းရွစ္ေသာင္း၊
၊ေသေၾကေစခဲ့တယ္လို႕ေျပာပါတယ္၊

၊အဲဒီလိုေျပာတာကထင္ေၾကးပါ၊သိပၸံနည္းက်က်ခိုင္လံုတဲ့သက္ေသမထူေထာင္ႏိုင္ၾကပါ၊မခိုင္လံုပါ၊
၊ဒီလိုထင္ၾကသူမ်ားရွိသလို၊မဟုတ္ရပါဘူးလို႕ဆန္႕က်င္ေျပာေစာဒကတက္သူေတြလဲအမ်ားၾကီးပါ၊

၃၊ဇီပင္ပူးကငလ်င္ေၾကာနဲ႕တမိုင္ကြာ

အဲဒီလိုေရးတာကမမွန္ပါ၊တ႐ုပ္ပါရဂူေတြေရးတာကဇီပင္ပူးကျပတ္ေရြ႕သံုးခုေပၚမွာလို႕ပါပါတယ္၊
၊အံ့ဩမိမွာပါ၊ငလ်င္ေၾကာေပၚမွာဘာျပဳလို႕ေဆာက္တာလဲ၊ကယ္လီဖိုးနီးယား၊အီရန္၊ဂ်ပန္တို႕ကလဲ၊
၊ဒီလိုဘဲငလ်င္ေၾကာေပၚျဖစ္ေစ၊အနီးအနားမွာျဖစ္ေစေဆာက္ၾကတယ္၊အဂၤ်င္နီယာပုံစံ ၊နဲ႕ႏိုင္ႏိုင္နင္းနင္း
ထိန္းသြားတာပါ၊

၊ဒီအခ်က္ကိုေဖာ္ျပသင့္ပါတယ္၊

၊ျမစ္ဆံုမတူကြဲျပားတာကိုမေဖာ္ျပထားပါ၊
(လူေတြကိုေခ်ာက္လွန္႕သလိုျဖစ္သြားတယ္)
၊ျမစ္ဆံုကတမိုင္မကမိုင္၈၄ေလာက္စစ္ကိုင္းျပတ္ေရြ႕နဲ႕ကြာေဝးပါတယ္၊
၊ရန္ကုန္သထံုမ်ဥ္းေျဖာင့္မိုင္၇၂ထက္ပိုေဝးပါတယ္၊

၊အကြာအေဝး မ ကပါ၊ေတာင္တန္းေတြျခားျပီးကာစီးထားလို႕ျမစ္ဆုံကစစ္ကိုင္းျပတ္ေရြ႕နဲ႕မထိေတြ႕ႏိုင္ပါ၊

ဒါေၾကာင့္၊ေရကာတာဆည္ေရေၾကာင့္ငလ်င္ျဖစ္လာတယ္လို႕အခ်ိဳ႕ကဇီပင္းပူးကိုစြပ္စြဲတာမ်ိဳးဆြဲေဆာင္ျပီးေျပာလိုတာမ်ိဳး၊
ဆိုရင္လုံးဝမမွန္ကန္ပါ၊

၊ျမစ္ဆုံ၊ေဆာင္းပါး#၂၊၃၊၄ကိုညႊန္း၊၊

၊၄၊ျမစ္ဆုံကပိုျမင့္တယ္
၊ဒီလိုေရးတာကမွားေနပါတယ္၊ဇီပင္ပူးက၅၁၂ေပ၊ျမစ္ဆုံက၄၅၈ေပျဖစ္ပါတယ္
၊ဦးထြန္းလြင္လို၊ေရႊကေလာင္ရွင္ဦးသန္းထြဋ္ေအာင္လိုအမွားေတြျဖစ္ေနတယ္၊

 


 

 

၊ဇီပင္ပူးလိုေရထုဖိအားကျပတ္ေရြ႕ေပၚက်ျပီးငလ်င္ျဖစ္မယ္ကိုသြားျပီးဆက္စပ္တြဲခ်ိတ္ရုံ
၊မကပါ၊ျမစ္ဆုံကဒိထက္ျမင့္လို႕ဒိထက္ျပင္းထန္မယ္လို႕ေခ်ာက္လွန္႕ေနတာပါ၊
၊အထက္ပါဆိုထားတဲ့အထိုင္းျမစ္ဆုံကစစ္ကိုင္းျပတ္ေရြ႕ေပၚမွာမဟုတ္၈၄မိုင္ေဝးပါတယ္ တာင္ေတြကာဆီးလို႕ျမစ္ဆုံေရတစက္ကမွစစ္ကိုင္းျပတ္ေရြ႕ကိုလဲမထိေတြ႕ပါ၊

၊ဆည္ေရေၾကာင့္ငလ်င္ျဖစ္မဲ့အဆိုကိုရင္းခ်င္ေပမဲ့မရပါ၊

 


INDIAN EXPERTSအိႏၵိယပါရဂူမ်ား
၂၀၀၈ကတ႐ုပ္ငလ်င္ကို၊ဘယ္ေရကာတာကမွမဖန္တီးပါ 

Dam had no hand in 2008 Chinese quake – Nature India

doi:10.1038/nindia.2010.123 Published online 13 September 2010

Dam had no hand in 2008 Chinese quake

K. S. Jayaraman

Fresh analysis by Indian geologists has demolished the theory that the deadly Wenchuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was triggered by a man-made reservoir as claimed by western scientists.

Nearly 80,000 people died in the magnitude 7.9 quake on the Longmen Shan fault near the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Scientists speculated that the earthquake was triggered by the 156 metre tall Zipingpu dam on Min river about 21 km east of the epicentre which began impounding water from March 2004, .

Scientists Vineet & Kalpana Gahalaut.
The link seemed ‘obvious’ given the precedent that in 1967 impoundment behind the Koyna Dam in western India triggered a 6.3 magnitude quake — the largest known reservoir-induced quake. But now Kalpna and Vineet Gahalaut at Hyderabad-based National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), a lab under the Council of Scientific and Industrail Research (CSIR), have shown that the Zipingpu reservoir had no role in the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake. The husband and wife team reached this conclusion after ‘a rigorous and robust’ analysis of the effect of the reservoir loading on the seismicity and the earthquake rupture.

“Based on our analysis, we are of the opinion that the reservoir impoundment did not influence the occurrence of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,” Kalpna and Vineet Gahalaut told Nature India. Incidentally in a similar exercise in 2004 they had established a clear link between the Koyna Dam and the Koyna earthquake.

When a reservoir is built on or near a fault the stability of the fault plane may be affected not only by the sheer weight of water but also by the changes in pore pressure in the rocks below due to fluid diffusion.

According to the authors, the stresses and pore pressure because of the reservoir impoundment exert both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the faults beneath it, depending upon factors such as reservoir dimension, annual changes in the reservoir level and orientation and location of faults with respect to the reservoir. The Koyna region in western India is a classic example where reservoir impoundment promoted failure of the faults, while the Tarbela reservoir in Pakistan is a very good example where impoundment of the reservoir inhibited their failure,” the scientists reported.

In the case of Wenchuan earthquake the NGRI scientists calculated change in stresses and pore pressure diffusion due to the actual variation of water level in the reservoir by adopting the standard Coulomb–Mohr frictional failure model of earthquake occurrence using the concept of the ‘Coulomb stress’ — a quantity which can be calculated if one knows the changes in shear stress, normal stress and pore pressure and the coefficient of friction on the fault. “If Coulomb stress is positive, the fault is destabilized or encouraged for failure. If it’s negative the fault will remain stable,” the researchers explained.

Using the stresses and pore pressure due to the reservoir impoundment, the NGRI scientists calculated the Coulomb stress on the northwest dipping fault plane. They found that the change in Coulomb stress at the earthquake hypocentre at a focal depth of 19 kilometres was negative during the entire reservoir water cycle, implying that the stresses due to the Zipingpu reservoir water load did not encourage failure on the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake fault plane.

“Even if we considered the contribution of pore pressure, the effective frictional resistance could not overcome the negative influence of shear stress on the fault plane at its hypocentre,” the scientists reported.

“Thus, we suggest that the reservoir impoundment probably did not play any role in the occurrence of this earthquake even if we consider the contribution from pore pressure.” According to the researchers, while the reservoir operation did not cause any increase in the Coulomb stress at the earthquake hypocentre and the region around it, it actually decreased the stress by ‘a nominal amount’ suggesting that the impoundment of Zipingpu reservoir had a ‘stabilizing effect’ on the 2008 Wenchaun earthquake hypocentre region.

၊ေရစတင္သြင္းစဥ္(၂၀၀၄) (၂၀၀၈ငလ်င္မတိုင္မီ)ကေျမတိမ္နားကေပ်ာ့ေျပာင္းျပီးမသိသာတဲ့ေျမၾကီးလႈပ္ရွားမႈေတြlow magnitude sensitivityက
အေပါင္းလကၡဏာေတြပါဘဲ၊ေရေတြကိုတင္သြင္းရာမွာငလ်င္မျဖစ္ရေအာင္ 
(အေကာင္းဘက္ကိုေထာက္ျပေနပါေၾကာင္းကိုေတြ႕ရပါတယ္)

They said their analysis, however, indicated that the slightly enhanced low-magnitude seismicity at shallow depths after the reservoir impoundment — but prior to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake — was positively influenced by the reservoir impoundment.


 တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကပါရဂူမ်ားDEBATE

 

‘God’s damnation’ or China’s dam: scientific debate on dam-quake link — china.org.cn

‘God’s damnation’ or China’s dam: scientific debate on dam-quake link

Some Chinese and American scientists argued that the 156-meter-high Zipingpu Dam was evidence of another case of reservoir-induced seismic activity (RIS), while other scientists challenged the claim.

Lei Xinglin, a geophysicist at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Tsukuba, Japan, said preliminary research showed the filling and releasing of water in the Zipingpu reservoir from the end of 2007 to May 2008 “affected” the earthquake activities in that area.

“We found the number of quakes increased during the reservoir’s filling period, … and the epicenters of quakes clustered in the southwest and southeast areas around the reservoir during the water releasing period,” Lei and his co-workers wrote in a paper in the Chinese geosciences journal “Seismology and Geology” last December.

However, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) who refused to be named said the Wenchuan tremor did not demonstrate the features of a reservoir-triggered quake.

“A RIS has a unique vertical fault movement, but what happened during the the Wenchuan earthquake was quite the opposite,” the CAS member said.

“There are four known RIS cases above 6.0-Magnitude around the world, including one in Xinfengjiang of China and another three in Zambia, Greece and India. All four were far more powerful than quakes that had been previously recorded in the regions,” Fan said to Xinhua.

Nonetheless, Ji said the reservoir could not result in a 8.0-magnitude earthquake, unless it was filled with dynamite instead of water.

 

He added that a 8.0-magnitude quake is close to 1,000 times more powerful than a magnitude-6.0 one.

The American journal Science published a news story on the “human trigger” for the Wenchuan Earthquake. It quoted Christian Klose, a Columbia University public hazards researcher, by saying the “several hundred million tonnes of water piled behind dams” both eased “the squeeze on the fault, weakening it, and increased the stress tending to rupture the fault.”

Klose did not mention any specific dam, but he said the effect of the stress of dam water was “25 times that of a year’s worth of natural stress loading from tectonic motions.”

“When the fault did finally rupture, it moved just the way the reservoir loading had encouraged it to,” he said.

He concluded in a non-refereed abstract at the Fall Conference of the American Geophysical Union last month “the root cause of triggering the Wenchuan earthquake may have stemmed from local and rapid mass changes on the surface.”

An email posted on Ji’s blog (http://www.sciencenet.cn/u/Majorite/) from Zhou Hua-wei, a geophysics professor at the Texas Tech University, also said Klose’s abstract was “not very convincing.”

Klose said in the abstract that Logmenshan region, where the earthquake rupture was, had no major seismic activity for more than one million years.

“But the clear line of the Longmenshan Fault from a satellite photo in such a region of a high-precipitation climate already reveals its seismically active nature,” Zhou wrote.

“The average recurrence interval for M-8 earthquakes is in a range of 3,000-6,000 years in the Longmenshan region based on geological data”, Ji Shaocheng said.

“The conference abstract was not peer reviewed … and is flawed in some facts,” he said.

“I think that Dr. Klose ought to present more detailed evidence in a journal paper, such as the Journal of Geophysical Research, that will offer more room for a vigorous analysis,” Zhou said.

Klose turned down an interview request from Xinhua, but said he would be open for statement after his paper is peer reviewed and accepted for publication.

 

Ji Shaocheng, a professor of Geophysics and Geology at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec, Canada, also insisted that the Zipingpu Dam and the Wenchuan earthquake were not related.
“The huge scale of the Wenchuan earthquake indicates unambiguously that it was a true tectonic event caused by eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau against the Sichuan Basin”, Prof. Ji told Xinhua.
Although the water piled behind the dam weighed more than 320 million tonnes, Ji said. “But since the water body covers a vast area, the stress it exerted on the riverbed is similar to that of a 50 or 60-storey building.
Such stress was far from enough to cause the earthquake’s violent rupture with a length of 280 km and a depth of 20-25 km within the crust, he said.
“It’s like scratching your foot while wearing a dozen boots,” he said.
Like most reservoirs, Zipingpu was built near a fall of the Minjiang River, for power generation. It also happened to be an earthquake-active area.
It began to be filled in December 2004, and can hold 1.1 billion cubic meters of water.        (not 2003 2004)
The reservoir’s dam height, storage capacity, and location on a fault satisfied at least three main conditions for a RIS, said Fan Xiao, chief engineer for regional geological surveys at the Sichuan Bureau of Geological Exploration and Exploitation of Mineral Resources.
“Statistics showed a reservoir with a dam height of over 100 meters and a total storage capacity of more than 500 million cubic meters has a 34 percent chance for causing RIS,” Fan said. He did not say where the statistics came from.
As a long-time anti-dam advocator, Fan had advised against the building of Zipingpu for many years.
“Lei’s paper further convinced me the Zipingpu Dam and the Wenchuan earthquake were closely connected,” Fan told Xinhua in a telephone interview.
Fan Xiao even went as far as suggesting that a dam the size similar to Zipingpu would not only induce an earthquake, but also escalate the power of a potential earthquake.

 

……Although Fan Xiao insisted that evidence linking the Zipingpu Dam and the Wenchuan earthquake has strengthened over the past months, he acknowledged that a firm conclusion was premature.

“The clustered moderate earthquakes near the Zipingpu Dam before the Wenchuan earthquake Lei mentioned in his paper might also just be the pre-shocks of the May 12 earthquake,” he admitted.

 

၊စိခြၽမ္ျပည္နယ္မွာဆည္၆၆၇၈လုံးရွိတယ္၊ဇီပင္ပူးထက္ကၾကီးတာေတြလဲရွိတယ္၊ဥပမာ Ertanနဲ႕Baozhusi ေရကာတာပါ၊
သူတို႕ကငလ်င္အဆင့္၆ထက္ၾကီးတာေတြမျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါ၊

 

Ji said, “There are 6,678 reservoirs in the Sichuan province, and the Zipingpu is not the largest one.”

For instance, the 240-meter-high Ertan Dam built in 1999 on the Yalongjiang River has a total storage capacity of 5.8 billion cubic meters; the 132-meter-high Baozhusi Dam has a total storage capacity of 2.6 billion cubic meters.

“All those dams have never induced a destructive earthquake measuring above six degrees on the Richter scale, not to mention an 8.0-magnitude one like the Wenchuan quake,” Ji said. Enditem

(Xinhua News Agency February 20, 2009)


 


ICOLD

 ICOLD၊ကမ႓ာ့ေရကာတာအၾကီးစားအသင္းၾကီးက ၊ငလ်င္ေနရာဇီပင္းပူးေရကာတာကိုလာေရာက္စီစစ္ေလ့လာျပီးစာတမ္း၁၃၇၊
၊ကိုထုတ္တယ္၊ဇီပင္ပူးကဆည္ေရေၾကာင့္ဝင္န္ေခ်ာင္ငလ်င္ျဖစ္လာတာမဟုတ္ဆိုတာေက်ညာထုတ္ထား
ရက္နဲ႕ဒီလိုအလွန္႕တၾကားျဖစ္ေအာင္မေရးသင့္ပါ၊

 

 


ဦးဝင္းမ်ိဳးသူနဲ႕က်ေနာ္တို႕ကအထက္ပါလူၾကီးတို႕လိုSeismologists ၊ငလ်င္ဘာသာပါရဂူေတြမဟုတ္လို႕
၊၎တို႕မွေဆာင္းပါးသတင္းကိုအားကိုးတၾကီးနဲ႕ဆည္းပူးရတယ္၊ယင္းသို႕ဆည္းပူးရာမွာ
က်က်န္ရစ္တာတို႕ကြက္ျပီးမေရးမိခ်န္မထားဖို႕ဘက္စံုဖို႕လိုပါတယ္၊

If a large dam has been designed according to the current state-of-practice, which requires that the dam can safely withstand the ground motions caused by the MCE, it should also be able to withstand the effects of the largest reservoir-triggered earthquake, as the maximum reservoir-triggered earthquake cannot be stronger than the MCE. Thus, reservoir-triggered seismicity (RTS) is not a safety problem for a well designed dam or the people who could be at risk in the case of a dam failure.

၊ဒိအျပင္ေရကာတာအသင္းၾကီးကထပ္ဆိုျပန္တယ္၊ေရကာတာဆည္ကေရေတြေၾကာင့္ငလ်င္ျဖစ္လာႏိုင္မႏိုင္ဆိုတာကိုအာရုံစိုက္အခ်ိန္ကုန္ခံ၊
၊ဖို႕မလိုပါ၊အသင္းၾကီးကျပဌာန္းလိုက္တဲ့အဆင့္ျမင့္ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးစည္းကမ္းခ်က္၁၂၀ပါ specificationsကိုလိုက္နာရင္ကာမိလံုေလာက္တယ္
၊ျမစ္ဆံုက၎စည္းကမ္းခ်က္အတိုင္းရစ္တာ၉အဆင့္ျမင့္ျမင့္နဲ႕ေရးဆြဲထားေၾကာင္းစီပီအိုင္အၾကီးအကဲကေက်ညာထားတယ္၊စီပီအိုင္အၾကီးအကဲ
၊ကေျပာတဲ့ေနရာမွာဇီပင္းပူးေရကာတာကရစ္တာ၇အဆင့္လုပ္ခဲ့ေပမဲ့ျမစ္ဆံုအတြက္ရစ္တာ၉အဆင့္လုပ္ဖို႕ပံုစံေရးဆြဲထားေၾကာင္းေက်ညာရွင္း 

၊လင္းထားတယ္၊၊ရစ္တာ၉ကရစ္တာ၇ထက္အဆတစ္ရာပါ၊

 

၊စီပီအိုင္အၾကီးအကဲေျပာ
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-10/03/content_13835493.htm

The Myanmar government also organized famous consulting organizations and experts from Switzerland and Japan to prove that over and over.

…..The seismic design of the dam in Myitsone Hydropower Station follows the standard of fortification intensity 9, which is higher than fortification intensity 7 of Zipingbu Hydropower Station that has withstood the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan.

To further fortify the overall seismic performance of the dam, we applied reinforced concrete grating to the top of downstream dam slope and implemented other seismic fortifying measures.

 

In case of emergency, the surface and middle discharge orifices on the spillway can be used to rapidly lower the reservoir water level and ensure dam and downstream safety.

 

၊ေရကာတာတဝိႈက္(၊ျမစ္လက္တက္မ်ားပါႏိုင္)မွာက်ိဳတင္အကဲခတ္တိုင္းတာသတင္းေပးစခန္း၂၅ေနရာအျပင္၊
၊ေရကာတာအတြင္းအျပင္မွာအကဲခတ္အေျချပတိုင္းတာတဲ့စက္ကိရိယာခုႏွစ္ရာတပ္ဆင္ျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားမွာ၊

We will build 25 digital remote control seismic monitoring stations in the reservoir area and arrange more than 700 safety monitoring instruments all over the dam in accordance with the safety monitoring standard applied to the world’s highest concrete face rockfill dam so as to keep a close eye on the dam’s working conditions during operation.


 

 


 

 

 


 

၊ဝူဟန္ကပံုအလွမ်ား

 

 


၊အျမန္မီးရထားဘူတာ႐ံု

၊ေျပာင္လက္သန္႕ရွင္းျပီးေလဆိပ္လိုခမ္းနား 


 

 

၊ထိုင္ခံုအျပည့္၊လူေတြကိုႏိုင္ႏိုင္နင္းနင္း

၊အျမန္ရထားလမ္းတျပည္လုံးဆက္ျပီးအေရွ႕ေတာင္အာရွ
၊ဥေရာပ၊႐ုရွား၊အာဖရိကေျမာက္ပိုင္းစသည္တို႕နဲ႕ဆက္သြယ္မယ္၊

 


၊ဘီဂ်င္းဂြန္ဒံုေျပး”က်ည္ဆံရထားစတင္ေျပးစြဲ

၁၄၂၈မိုင္ခရီး(ရန္ကမႏၲေလးရဲ့၃.၇ေခါက္နီးပါး)ကို*၂၂နာရီအစား) ၈နာရီနဲ႕ေရာ၊က္မယ္
၊တနည္းဆိုရင္၊ရန္ကုန္မႏၲေလးကို၂နာရီနဲ႕ျပီးမယ္၊

 

 

၊ေခတ္မွီလွပ၊ခန္႕ညားထည္ဝါျပီးခရီးသယ္ေတြအမ်ားအျပားဆန္႕ဝင္တဲ့ဝူဟန္ေလဆိပ္


 

 


 

 


 

၊ျပိဳင္စံရွားဧရာမေစ်းဆိုင္တန္းလ်ားအထပ္ၾကီးေတြထိန္ထိန္လင္း

 


 


 

 


 

 

 

 

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