အရင္လက ခဏတာျဖတ္ထားခဲ့တဲ့ paragraph writing အေႀကာင္းျပန္ဆက္ ႀကရေအာင္။ ဒီလမွာေတာ့ compare and contrast paragraph ေလးေတြ ေရးတတ္ေအာင္ ေလ့လာႀကပါစုိ႔။ တကယ္ေတာ့ compare လုပ္တယ္ဆုိတာ ေန႔စဥ္ေန႔တုိင္း လူတုိင္းလုိလုိ လုပ္ေလ့လုပ္ထရွိတဲ့ ကိစၥေလးတစ္ခုပါ။ မျမင္ဘူးတဲ့လူတစ္ေယာက္ကုိ ေတြ႔မိတယ္ဆုိပါစုိ႔။ ဒီလူက ကုိယ္ေလာက္ ခ်မ္းသာရဲ႕လား၊ပညာတတ္ရဲ႕လား၊ ရုပ္ရည္ ရူပကာကေကာ -ဘယ္လုိလဲ စသျဖင့္ ႏႈိင္းယွဥ္ႀကည့္တတ္တာ လူ႔သဘာ၀ပါ။ ကဲ လက္ေတြ႔ ေရးႀကည့္ႀကပါစုိ႔။ ေလာကႀကီးမွာ ရွိေနတဲ့လူေတြကုိ အုပ္စု ၂စု ခြဲျပီးႀကည့္ႀကရေအာင္ – Winners and Losers ရယ္လုိ႔ေပါ့ ေနာ္။ ဒီေအာင္ျမင္သူေတြနဲ႔ ဆုံးရႈံးသူေတြရဲ႕ ျခားနားခ်က္ေလးေတြကုိ စာရြက္ေပၚမွာ computer ေပၚမွာ ခ်ေရးလုိက္ပါ။ အဂၤလိပ္လုိ listing လုိ႔ ေခၚပါတယ္။ prewriting technique တခုေပါ့ေနာ္။
Winners Losers
-More willing to take risks Less willing to take risks
-More passionate about what they do Less passionate about what they do
-Always give it their all tend to be complacent
-Persistent give up too easily
-Lucky unlucky

ကဲ ျခားနားခ်က္ေလးေတြကုိ ျပန္ျပီး သုံးသပ္ႀကည့္တဲ့အခါမွာ ၃ခ်က္က ပုိမုိထင္ရွားပါတယ္။ ဒီ ၃ခ်က္ကုိ အဓိကထားျပီး ႏႈိင္းယွဥ္ လုိ႔ရပါတယ္။ အရင္ဆုံး Topic sentence ေလး ေရးႀကပါစုိ႔။ဒီေနရာမွာ အခ်ိန္ယူျပီး ေရးဖုိ႔လုိပါတယ္။ စာမေရးတတ္သူေတြကေတာ့ ေခါင္းထဲ၀င္လာသမွ် အေတြးေတြကုိ ခ်ေရးေတာ့မွာပဲ။ ဒီလုိမလုပ္မိေစဖုိ႔ အေရးႀကီးပါတယ္။ ဆုိင္တာေတြေရာ မဆုိင္တာေတြေရာ အမ်ားႀကီး ပါမသြားေအာင္ တနည္းအား ျဖင့္ off topic မျဖစ္ေစဖုိ႔ အေရးႀကီးပါတယ္။ ဒီေတာ့ စာမေရးခင္ ေသခ်ာစဥ္းစား ျပီးမွေရးပါ။ paragraph မွာပါတဲ့ ၀ါက်တုိင္းဟာ on topic ျဖစ္ေနဖုိ႔လိုပါတယ္။ ေအာက္ပါ Topic sentence ေလး ရလာျပီဆုိပါစုိ႔။
There are three main differences between winners and losers.
ဒီေလာက္ပဲေရးဖုိ႔လုိပါတယ္ ။Topic sentence မွာ ဒီကြာျခားခ်က္ေလးေတြဟာ ဘာေတြလဲလုိ႔ ေဖာ္ျပစရာမလုိပါ။ paragraph ထဲမွာ ေဖၚၿပသြားမွာ ၿဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒီေနရာမွာ paragraph ရဲ႕ structure ေလးကို တစ္ေခါက္ ၿပန္ႀကည္႔ႀကရေအာင္။
-Topic sentence
-Idea 1
-Explanation
-Example
-Idea 2
-Explanation
-Example
–Idea 3
-Explanation
-Example
-Conclusion
ဒီေတာ့ ပထမဆုံးအေနနဲ႔ ကြာခ်ားခ်က္(၁)ကုိ စတင္ေဖာ္ျပရမွာပါ။
Winners are more willing to take risks than Losers.
ျပီးေတာ့မွ ဒီ၀ါက်ကုိ အနည္းငယ္ ရွင္းျပဖုိ႔လုိပါတယ္။
Winners know that they must take risks in order to achieve their dreams. Losers, on the other hand, like to play it safe.
risks ဆုုိတာ အႏၱရာယ္ကုိဆုိပါတယ္။ ေအာင္ျမင္ခ်င္ရင္ စြန္႔စားရဲရမယ္ေပါ့။ စာဖတ္သူအားလုံးဟာ တကယ္ Winner ေတြပါ။ အေမရိကားကုိ စြန္႔စြန္႔စားစားေရာက္လာခဲ့တယ္မဟုတ္လား။ စြန္႔စားခဲ့ရက်ဳိးနပ္ပါတယ္ေနာ္။
ေနာက္ဆုံးအေနနဲ႔ ဥပမာေလးေပးရမယ္။
When Mg Mg started his business, he had to borrow a lot of money. He was worried that he would be in debt for a long time, but knew he had to take the risk. Today he is a very successful businessman.
ရွင္းပါတယ္ေနာ္။ အေႀကြးယူရဲျပီး စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ခဲ့ေတာ့ ယေန႔သူဟာ သန္းႀကြယ္သူေဌးႀကီးျဖစ္လာတာေပါ့။ စားေရးသူတုိ႔လုိ အေႀကြးမယူရဲသူက်ေတာ့ Lexus တုိ႔ BMW တုိ႔ကုိ အေ၀းကပဲေငးျပီး ႀကည့္ေနရတုန္းပါ။ဒီ၀ါ က်ေလးေတြကုိ သင့္ေတာ္တဲ့ Transition ေလးေတြသုံးျပီး ဆက္ေပးလုိက္တဲ့အခါ လွပတဲ့၀ါက်ေလးေတြ ၿဖစ္လာပါတယ္။ ကြာျခားခ်က္ႏွစ္ႏွင့္သုံးတုိ႔ကုိလည္း အလားတူ-
state the difference, explain the difference and provide a relevant example လုပ္ေပးရပါတယ္။ ကြာျခားခ်က္ သုံးခုစလုံးကုိ ေဖာ္ျပျပီးတဲ့အခါမွာ လုိအပ္တဲ့ transition words ေလးေတြ ထည့္ေပးလုိက္ တဲ့အခါမွာ ေဖာ္ျပပါ paragraph ေလး ရလာပါတယ္။
There are three main differences between winners and losers. First and foremost, Winners are more willing to take risks than losers. Winners know that they must take risks in order to achieve their dreams. Losers, on the other hand, like to play it safe. For example, When Mg Mg started his business, he had to borrow a lot of money. He was worried that he would be in debt for a long time, but knew he had to take the risk. Today he is a very successful businessman. The second difference between winners and losers is that winners are persistent whereas losers tend to give up too easily. Losers want to be successful, but lack the will power to stay the course. Winners, in contrast, are willing to try and try again until they succeed. My neighbor, Hla Hla, for instance was rejected the first three times she applied for a visa to the US. Because she didn’t give up, she was able to get a visa on her fourth try and today she is a US citizen with a high-paying job. Finally, winners always give it their all. They never slack off and would not dream of slowing down until they reach their goal. Losers, however, tend to ease up as soon as the end is in sight and thus are often victimized by a hard charging winner. We all know the story of the tortoise and the hare. The hare slowed down and even took a nap once he was in front and of course ended up losing the race to the hard charging tortoise who never stopped working.
ေနာက္ဆုံးအေနႏွင့္ conclusion ေလးထည့္ေပးဖုိ႔ပဲလုိပါတယ္။ conclusion ကုိေရးတဲ့ေနရာမွာလည္း အခ်ိန္ယူျပီးစဥ္းစားပါ။ တခ်ဳိ႕က conclusion မွာ summary ေလးေရးေလ့ရွိတယ္။ အခ်ဳိ႕ကေတာ့ topic sentence ေလးကုိဘဲျပန္ျပီး အျခားေ၀ါဟာရေလးေတြနဲ႔ restate လုပ္လုိ႔လည္းရပါတယ္။ စာေရးသူကေတာ့ ဒီေနရာမွာ ေမးခြန္းေလးနဲ႔အဆုံးသတ္ျပမွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ပုံမွန္အားျဖင့္ ၀ါက် တခုတည္းသာေရးဖုိ႔လုိေသာ္လည္း ဒီေနရာမွာ ပုိမုိလွပေအာင္ ေနာက္ထပ္၀ါက်ေလးႏွစ္ခု ထပ္ထည့္ထားတာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အားလုံး ေအာင္ျမင္သူမ်ားျဖစ္ပါေစလုိ႔ ဆုေတာင္းေပးလုိက္ပါတယ္။
In conclusion, we can all be winners by taking risks, being persistent, and always giving it our all. Do you want to be a winner or would you prefer to be a loser? The choice is yours.

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Editor - The Myanmar Gazette || First Amendment – Religion and Expression - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.