အရင္လက Topic sentence ေလးေတြအေၾကာင္း ေဖၚျပခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဆုိၾကပါစုိ႔။ topic sentence ေလးေတြ ေကာင္းေကာင္း ေရးတတ္ေနျပီ။ ဒီေတာ့ paragraph လွလွေလးေတြေရးႏုိင္ ျပီလားေပါ့။ အဲနီးစပ္လာျပီေပါ့ေနာ္။ အစေကာင္းမွ အေနွာင္းေသခ်ာ ဆုိသလုိ topic sentence ေကာင္းေကာင္းေရးတတ္ရင္ အစကေတာ့ေကာင္းေနျပီေပါ့။ အေႏွာင္းေသခ်ာဖုိ႔အတြက္ အဲ့ဒီ topic sentence မွာပါတဲ့ controlling idea ကုိ ေသခ်ာရွင္းျပႏုိင္ရမယ္။ နမူနာေလးေတြနဲ႔ support လုပ္ေပးျပီး လွပတဲ့ မွတ္သားဖြယ္ရာ conclusion ေလးနဲ႔ အဆုံးသတ္ေပးလုိက္ရင္ လွပခန္႔ညားတဲ့ paragraph ေလးတစ္ခု ျဖစ္လာမွာပါ။ controlling idea ကုိပီပီျပင္ျပင္ ရွင္းျပႏုိင္ဖုိ႔ သိပ္အေရးၾကီးပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ အေနနဲ႔ အရင္လက ေလ့က်င့္ ဖုိ႔ေပးထားခဲ့တဲ့ ေခါင္းစဥ္ေလးေတြထဲက နံပတ္(၁)ျဖစ္တဲ့ How to Deal with Rejection ကုိၾကည္ၾကရေအာင္။ ဆုိပါစုိ႔ There are three way to deal with rejection. ဆုိတဲ့ Topic sentence ေလးနဲ႔ စၾကျပီ။ ဒီေတာ့ ပထမဆုံး နည္းလမ္း သုိ႔မဟုတ္ first way ကုိရွင္းျပရမွာေပါ့။ ဥပမာ-
First and foremost, we can deal with rejection by becoming upset or depressed. For example, when I was rejected for a job I really wanted, I couldn’t eat or sleep for nearly two weeks. It took me quite a while to recover from the rejection.
ရွင္းပါတယ္ေနာ္- ကုိယ္လိုခ်င္တ့ဲ အလုပ္မရတဲ့အခါ စိတ္ဓာတ္က်သြားတယ္၊ စိတိထိခုိက္သြားတယ္ေပါ့။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ နွစ္ပတ္နီးနီး မအိပ္ႏုိင္မစားနုိင္ ျဖစ္သြားျပီး ေတာ္ေတာ္ေလးၾကာမွျပန္ေကာင္းလာတယ္ေပါ့။ ေနာက္ထပ္ဥပမာအေနနဲ႔ အရင္လက ေလ့က်င့္ဖို႔ ေပးထားတဲ့ ဒုတိယေခါင္းစဥ္ကေလးကုိ ၾကည့္ၾကရေအာင္။ Friendship ေပါ့ေနာ္။ မိမိေရးထားတဲ့ topic sentence ေလးကုိ ျပန္ၾကည့္လုိက္ပါအုံး။ စာေရးသူရဲ႕topic sentence နဲ႔ မတူရင္ေနပါေစ။ ခပ္ဆင္ဆင္ဆုိအလုပ္ျဖစ္ပါျပီ။ Friendship has three major benefits. ဒီေတာ့ ပထမဆုံး Benefit ကုိစျပီးရွင္းၾကပါစုိ႕။
First of all, friendship can help us overcome loneliness and self-doubt. Humans are social animals, so we simply cannot live alone. We need friends to help us enjoy life and to help us believe in ourselves. For instance, can you imagine enjoying your birthday party just by yourself without any friends in attendance?
မိတ္ေဆြမရွိခဲ့ရင္ လူတုိင္းအထီးက်န္သလုိခံစားရျပီး၊ မိမိကုိယ္မိမိလည္း ယုံၾကည္မႈနည္းပါးသြားႏုိင္တယ္။ ဥပမာ – မိမိေမြးေန႔ပါတီကုိ မည္သူကုိမွ် မဖိတ္ၾကားဘဲ တစ္ေယာက္ထည္း ဆင္ႏြဲၾကည့္လုိက္ပါေလ။ မိတ္ေဆြတစ္ေယာက္တစ္ေလေတာင္ေပၚမလာခဲ့ရင္ ဘယ္လုိ ခံစားရမလဲ စဥ္းစားၾကည့္လုိက္ပါေနာ္။ Topic sentence မွာပါတဲ့ controlling idea ကုိ သရုပ္ေဖာ္တဲ့အခါ ဥပမာ ႏွစ္မ်ဳိးႏွစ္စား ရွိပါတယ္။ ပထမဆုံးေခါင္းစဥ္ How to deal with rejection မွာ အသုံးျပခဲ့တဲ့ဥပမာေလးက တကယ္လက္ေတြ႔ ျဖစ္ပ်က္ခဲတဲ့ ကိစၥေလးတစ္ခု ုပါ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ past tence ကုိ သုံးထားပါတယ္။ အဂၤလိပ္လုိေတာ့ Specific example လုိ႔ ဆုိပါတယ္။ ဒုတိယေခါင္းစဥ္ Friendship မွာ အသုံးျပဳထားတဲ့ ဥပမာေလးကေတာ့ တကယ္ျဖစ္ပ်က္္ခဲ့တာ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။ စိတ္ကူးယာဥ္ၾကည့္ခုိင္းထားတာပါ။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ past tense ကုိမသုံးဘဲ conditional structure ကုိိ သုံးထားပါတယ္။ ဒီလုိ ဥပမာ မ်ဳိးကုိ General example လုိ႔ေခၚပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ ႏွစ္မ်ဳိး စလုံးအသုံး၀င္ပါတယ္။ သူ႔ေနရာနဲ႔ သူေပါ့ေနာ္။ အရင္လက ေလ့က်င့္ဖုိ႔ေပးထားတဲ့ ေခါင္းစဥ္ေလးသုံးခုကုိ နမူနာယူလုိ႔ရေအာင္ topic sentence ေလးေတြနဲ႔ supporting sentence ေလးေတြပါ ျဖည့္စြက္ျပီးေဖာ္ျပေပးပါ့မယ္။
Domestic Violence
Domestic violence has three major causes.The first cause of domestic violence is addiction. When a person is addicted to alcohol,drugs or gambling, that addiction can cause him or her to do harm to the people he or she may love.
For instance, when a drug addict cannot get the money he needs to buy his drugs from his family, he may resort to violence to get what he wants.(general example)
Reducing Crime
We can reduce crime by following three steps. The first step is to establish neighborhood crime watch group to deter and report crimes. These neighborhood groups costs nothing, but they can be very effective in deterring crimes.
For example, the country of Santa Clara three years after such groups were introduced, crimes rates went down from a high of 45% in 2009 to just 9% in 2012.(specific example)
Defining Courage
There are three possible definitions of courage. First of all ,courage may be defined as the willingness to face one’s fears when necessary. For instance, suppose one is afraid of heights.Is one ready and willing to fly across the
country when necessary or will one choose to say scared and instead elect to drive across the country? The answer to that question will reveal if the person has courage or not.(general example)
Supporting Sentence ေလးေတြအေၾကာင္း အေတာ္အသင့္ ျပည့္စုံသြားပါျပီ။ ဒီေတာ့ Paragraph ကုိအဆုံးသတ္ဖုိ႔ လုိအပ္တဲ့ Concluding sentence ေလးေတြအေၾကာင္း ဆက္လက္ေလ့လာၾကပါစုိ႔ ။ concluding sentence ေလးတစ္ခုေရးေတာ့မယ္ဆုိရင္ topic sentence ကုိျပန္ၾကည့္လုိက္ပါ။ ဒီ topic sentence မွာပါတဲ့ အဓိပၸါယ္ေလးကုိ မပ်က္ေစဘဲ အဲဒီ topic sentence ကုိ အျခားစကားလုံးေတြသုံးျပီး ျပန္ေရးလုိက္ရင္ လွပတဲ့ concluding sentence ေလးတခု ရလာပါလိမ့္မယ္။ အဂၤလိပ္လုိေတာ့- Rewrite te topic sentence using different word and expressions ေျပာေလ့ရွိပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ အေနနဲ႔ ေဖာ္ျပျပီးသား topic sentence ၅ခုစလုံးကုိ ျပန္ျပီးေရးထားတဲ့ အဓိပၸါယ္ ဆင္တူေတြျဖစ္တဲ့ concluding sentence ၅ခုနဲ႔ယွဥ္ျပီး ျပေပးပါမယ္။ ဒီလအတြက္ေတာ့ ဒီမွာနားၾကပါစုိ႔။ ေနာက္လမွာ မိမိေရးထားတဲ့ concluding sentence ေလးေတြနဲ႔ စာေရးသူေဖာ္ျပေပးမယ္႔ sentence ေလးေတြနဲ႔ ယွဥ္ၾကည့္ျပီး ျပင္သင့္တာေလးေတြျပင္ၾကတာေပါ့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့့။

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Editor - The Myanmar Gazette || First Amendment – Religion and Expression - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.