ငါး ဆိုတဲ့နာမည္ဟာ လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ ၁၅ ႏွစ္ေက်ာ္ေလာက္က နာမည္ၾကီး မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ နံပါတ္ဖိုးျပီးရင္ နံပါတ္ငါးဆိုသလို အရမ္းအေရးပါခဲ့လို႕ လူသုံးမ်ားခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဖက္စီဒိုင္း ဖက္စီဒိုင္း စြဲေနျပီ မဟုတ္လား
ဆိုတဲ့ သီခ်င္းေတာင္ေပၚခဲ့ေသးတယ္ဆိုေတာ့ ဘယ္ေလာက္နာမည္ၾကီးခဲ့တယ္ဆိုတာ
သိၾကမွာပါ။ ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေပ်ာက္ေဆးရည္တစ္မ်ိဳးေပါ့ (cough medicine or
linctus when in syrup form is a medicinal drug used in an attempt to
treat coughing and related conditions.)
မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးတစ္ခုအျဖစ္သတ္မွတ္လိုက္ျပီေနာက္ အရမ္းေစ်းၾကီးေပး၀ယ္ခဲ့ရေတာ့
စီးပြါးပ်က္ခဲ့တဲ့သူေတြ အမ်ားၾကီးရွိခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ေရာင္း၀ယ္ေဖာက္ကားသူေတြ
ၾကီးပြားခ်မ္းသာလာခဲ့တဲ့ ေဆးရည္ေပါ့ဗ်ာ။ စကၤာပူတို႕၊ မေလးရွားတို႕၊
ထိုင္းတို႕မွာ တခ်ိဳ႕ျမန္မာေတြ ေရာင္း၀ယ္ေဖာက္ကားရင္း
စီပြားျဖစ္ခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။ ေနာက္ပိုင္း ၁၀ ႏွစ္ေက်ာ္ေလာက္က်ေတာ့
အဲဒီေဆးရည္နာမည္ကို ထပ္မၾကားရေတာ့ပါဘူး။ ဒါေပမယ့္ ငါး ဆိုတဲ့ နာမည္ကေတာ့
အခုထိ က်န္ေနဆဲပဲေလ။ တျခားေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေပ်ာက္ေဆးရည္ တစ္မ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကို
အစားထိုးထားမယ္လို႕ ထင္မိပါတယ္။ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆိုေတာ့ စကၤာပူႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕
လုံျခဳံေရးအရ တင္သြင္းလာဖို႕ အခက္အခဲရွိလို႕ပါ။ တရား၀င္တင္သြင္းေနၾက
ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေပ်ာက္ေဆးရည္တစ္မ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကို ငါး ဆိုျပီ
ေရာင္း၀ယ္ေနၾကဟန္တူပါတယ္။ ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေပ်ာက္ေဆးရည္တိုင္းဟာ လူေတြကို
မိွန္းေစႏိုင္ျပီး မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးအသြင္ေဆာင္ပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ေျပာတာ မယုံရင္
ကိုယ္တိုင္ေဆးခန္းသြားျပျပီ ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေနပါတယ္လို႕ေျပာပါ။ ဆရာ၀န္က
ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးေပ်ာက္ေဆးရည္တစ္မ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကို ေပးလိမ့္မယ္။ အဲဒီေဆးရည္ကို
တခါေသာက္သုံးရန္ သတ္မွတ္ထားတဲ့ ပမာဏထက္ အဆမ်ားစြာ ပိုျပီ ေသာက္လိုက္ပါ။
သိလာပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ ငါး ဆိုတာခ်ည္းကို
ေရးၾကီးခြင္က်ယ္ေျပာေနစရာမလိုဘူးလို႕ ထင္ပါတယ္။
တကယ္တန္းေျပာရမွာ စကၤာပူ အမ်ိဳးသားေရး ေကာင္စီ (National Council) က
ဆန္႕က်င္ေနတဲ့ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးေတြပဲေလ။ အဲဒီထဲမွာ ငါး ဆိုတာ မပါ၀င္ပါဘူး။
မပါ၀င္တာကို တရား၀င္ေရာင္း၀ယ္လို႕ရတယ္ မထင္လိုက္ပါနဲ႕။ အေရးမၾကီးလို႕
မပါ၀င္တာပါ။ ဘာေဆး၀ါးမဆို လိုတာထက္ပိုျပီး သုံးစြဲ၊ ေရာင္း၀ယ္ေနရင္
မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးအသြင္သက္ေရာက္ေစႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ေဆးလက္မွတ္မပါဘဲ
ေရာင္း၀ယ္ခြင့္မရွိပါ။
သိထားသင့္တဲ့ စကၤာပူက မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါး
စကၤာပူႏိုင္ငံမွာ အဓိကအေရးယူေနတဲ့ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးေတြကေတာ့
၁။ ေဆးေျခာက္ (Cannabis)
Marijuana, pot, grass, joints, ganja လို႕ ေခၚေ၀ၚေနၾကပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာေတြကေတာ့ မုန္႕ လို႕ေခၚေလ့ရွိတယ္။
Description
•Cannabis comes from the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa. The whole plant is
dried and compressed into blocks until it looks like dried herbs or tea.
•Cannabis causes a person’s mind to become addicted. It contains a
chemical that affects one’s mood and the way one sees and hears things.
•Cannabis affects one’s concentration and memory, hence it weakens the
abuser’s ability to learn. Cannabis abusers are likely to move on to
stronger and deadlier drugs.
The Effects
•Loss of concentration
•Increased heart rate
•Poor balance and co-ordination
•Anxiety or panic
•Depression
•Confusion
•Hallucination – imagining objects, hearing sounds
Penalties
Illegal traffic, import or export of :
•Cannabis resin of more than 200 grams – DEATH.
•Cannabis mixture of more than 1 kilogram – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of cannabis – up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၂။ ကိုကင္း (Cocaine)
Crack, coke, snow လို႕ေခၚေ၀ၚေလ့ရွိၾကတယ္။
Description
•Cocaine is derived from the leaves of the Erthroxylum Coca plant.
•In its pure form, cocaine is a white crystalline powder and it is
either sniffed in powder form or injected into the body in liquid form.
•Cocaine is both a central nervous system stimulant and an anaesthetic.
The chronic cocaine abuser is socially dangerous because of the mental
abnormalities caused by the drug.
The Effects
•Hallucinations
•Increased heart rate and blood pressure
•Insomnia
•Depression
•Loss of appetite and weight
•Fear and anxiety
Penalties
•Illegal traffic in cocaine of more than 500 grams – DEATH.
•Illegal import or export of cocaine of more than 30 grams – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of cocaine – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၃။ Depressants (referred to in slang as a “downer,” is a chemical
agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of
the body.)
Upjohn and Erimin လို႕ သိၾကတယ္လို႕ေတာ့ေျပာတာပဲ။ မၾကားဖူးေသးပါဘူး။
Description
•Depressants are drugs which help a person to calm down and sleep.
•Depressants are usually taken orally by abusers. The drug may also be
dissolved in water and then injected into the body. This can cause
infections as the drug powder is usually not totally dissolved and it
remains under the skin or the vein.
The Effects
An abuser who cannot get his regular supply may suffer from severe withdrawal symptoms:
•Anxiety
•Increased heart rate
•Distorted eyesight
•Violent convulsions
•Insomnia
Penalties
•Illegal traffic – Up to 10 years imprisonment and 5 strokes of the cane.
•Illegal import or export – Up to 20 years imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane.
•Possession and consumption – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၄။ စိတ္ၾကြေဆး (Ecstasy)
Pink or Pink Lady, Snow White, Playboy, Apple, XTC လို႕ေခၚၾကတာပဲ။
Description
•MDMA, more commonly known as ‘Ecstasy’ comes in a tablet or capsule form. It is often sold in discos and night joints.
•’Ecstasy’ causes permanent damage to the heart and liver. People may
take it to enable them to dance all night and sometimes they die from
exhaustion and dehydration.
•Chemicals such as paracetamol and calcium carbonate, are often mixed with Ecstasy. This may cause bad reactions to the body.
The Effects
•Increased blood pressure and pulse rate
•False feelings of confidence and closeness with others
•Sweating
•Dehydration
•Convulsions, jaw clenching and teeth grinding
•Vomiting and anxiety
•Paranoid feelings: extreme fear and anxiety
•Uncontrollable movements
Penalties
•Illegal traffic of ‘Ecstasy’ – up to 20 years imprisonment and 15 strokes.
•Illegal import or export of ‘Ecstasy’ – up to 30 years imprisonment and 15 strokes.
•Possession and consumption of ‘Ecstasy’ – up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၅။ Flunitrazepam (Flunitrazepam is commonly prescribed for the
treatment of insomnia. Insomnia can be described as a difficulty falling
asleep, frequent awakening, early awakenings or a combination of both.)
Also Known as
Rohypnol, Roachies, Roofies, Rophies, ‘Forget-me Pill’
Description
•’Rohypnol’ is used in some countries for prescription use as a
treatment for insomnia, a sedative, and as a pre-surgery anaesthetic. It
is taken to relieve anxiety and for muscle relaxation.
•’Rohypnol’ is tasteless and odourless, and it dissolves quite easily in
carbonated beverages and alcohol, thus making it popular for use as a
date-rape drug. Ketamine is also used a date-rape drug due to the
‘disassociative effect’ it has on the abusers.
The Effects
•Loss of memory
•Loss of muscle control
•Dizziness
•Weakness
•Loss of consciousness
Penalties
•Illegal traffic of ‘Rohypnol’ – Up to 10 years imprisonment and 5 strokes of the cane.
•Illegal import or export of ‘Rohypnol’ – Up to 20 years imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane.
•Possession and consumption of ‘Rohypnol’ – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၆။ ဘိန္းျဖဴ (Heroin)
Also Known as
White, smack, junk, powder, putih, medicine, ubat
Description
•Heroin is a powerful and very addictive drug that comes in granular, powder or solution form.
•Heroin is a powerful and very addictive drug that comes in granular, powder or solution form.
•Heroin No. 4 is white in colour while Heroin No. 3 is more yellowish.
•Heroin is the primary drug of abuse in Singapore. Heroin abusers feel
dull and tire very easily. They cannot work properly as they are not
able to concentrate.
•”Chasing the Dragon”, a common method of abuse used by heroin abusers
here, involves heating the heroin powder and sniffing the fumes through a
rolled note.
The Effects
If an abuser tries to stop using heroin, his body reacts strongly and he experiences painful withdrawal symptoms:
•Aches and spasms
•Stomach cramps and convulsions
•Shaking and vomiting
•Running nose
•Watery eyes
•Loss of appetite
•Diarrhoea
Penalties
•Illegal traffic, import or export of heroin of more than 15 grams – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of heroin – up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၇။ ေရခဲ (Ice)
Also Known as
‘Ice’, glass, crystal, quartz, ice cream, hirropon and shabu စကၤာပူနဲ႕မေလးရွားမွာ နာမည္ၾကီးေပါ့။
Description
•Methamphetamine hydrochloride is more commonly known as ‘Ice’ in
Singapore. It is a strong stimulant which comes in a crystallized form.
It is odourless and colourless.
•’Ice’ has a very strong effect on the nervous system and is highly
addictive. Besides experiencing a temporary sense of well being, the
abuser also feels anxious restlessness which can lead to violent
behaviour.
The Effects
•Hallucinations
•Liver and kidney damage
•Damage to the heart
•Loss of weight
•Impotency
•Severe convulsions
•Stroke
•Death
Penalties
•Illegal traffic, import or export of ‘Ice’ of more than 250 grams – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of ‘Ice’ – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၈။ Inhalants (Inhalants are drugs that are inhaled as a gas,
vapor, or aerosol. Some inhalants are used for medical purposes, such as
anesthesia and the delivery of medication to the lungs (for example by
an inhaler or nebulizer to administer asthma medication.) )
Also Known as
Glue-sniffing, solvent abuse, solvent inhalation, solvent sniffing
Description
•Some substances, such as glue and paint thinner, give off vapours and fumes. The sniffing of vapour is known as inhalant abuse.
•Inhalant abuse affects the growth and development of muscles, nerves
and organs. If you are an inhalant abuser, normal activities like
running or shouting can cause death by heart failure. An inhalant abuser
may die from suffocation anytime. This is known as Sudden Sniffing
Death. It can happen on the very first time or any other time the abuser
sniffs glue.
The Effects
•Memory Loss
•Inability to think
•Easy bleeding and bruising
•Damage to the central nervous system
•Liver and kidney damage
•Stomach and urinary pains
•Muscular cramps
•Muscular cramps
Penalties
•Selling or offering to sell an intoxicating substance when it is
suspected that the substance is for the purpose of intoxication – Up to
S$5,000 fine or 2 years imprisonment or BOTH.
•Refusing a blood specimen test – Up to S$2,000 fine or 3 months imprisonment.
•Abuse of intoxicating substance – Admission to a rehabilitation center
for up to 6 months or up to S$2,000 fine and/or 6 months imprisonment.
၉။ Ketamine (ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor
antagonist, and, like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine, and
phencyclidine (PCP), induces a state referred to as “dissociative
anesthesia.” As with other pharmaceuticals of this type, ketamine is
used illicitly as a recreational drug, sometimes referred to as Special
K.)
Also Known as
K, Special K, Vitamin K, Kit Kat
Description
•Ketamine is an anaesthetic for veterinary as well as human use. The
drug takes the form of a white crystalline powder, a liquid or a tablet.
As a drug of abuse in the US and Australia, Ketamine has become common
at dance parties or ‘raves’.
•Ketamine produces a progression of effects from a state of dreamy
intoxication to delirium accompanied by the inability to move, feel pain
or remember what has occurred while under the drug’s influence. The
effects of Ketamine last an hour or less but the drug can affect the
senses, judgement and coordination for 18 to 24 hours.
The Effects
•Hallucination
•Alter sensation, mood and consciousness
•Distort hearing, touch, smell, taste and visual sensation
•Nausea and vomiting
•Loss of memory
Penalties
•Illegal traffic of Ketamine – Up to 20 years imprisonment and 10 strokes of the cane.
•Illegal import or export of Ketamine – Up to 30 years imprisonment or imprisonment for life and 15 strokes of the cane.
•Possession and consumption of Ketamine – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၁၀။ Methamphetamine ((methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine),
popularly shortened to meth and also nicknamed “ice”, is a
psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug.)
Also Known as
yaba, crazy horse pill
Description
•The stimulant powder in ‘yaba’ is produced from the ephedrine plant. By
adding other substances like dyes, the bulk material for the tabletting
process is prepared. The different colours of the stimulant powder are
used to distinguish the quality and purity of the methamphetamine used.
Most of the ‘yaba’ tablets found are embossed with the ‘WY’ logo and are
green and orange in colour.
•Some labourers abuse ‘yaba’ for economic purpose to give them a boost
so that they can work longer hours. Other reasons for its abuse include
its affordability and ease of consumption than other drugs.
The Effects
•Increased heart beat
•Dehydration
•Paranoid feeling
•Sweating
•Insomnia
•Irritability
•Stroke
•Depression
Penalties
•Illegal traffic, import or export of ‘Yaba’ of more than 250 grams – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of ‘Yaba’ – Up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၁၁။ ေမာ္ဖင္း (Morphine)
နာက်င္မႈ ေ၀ဒနာသက္သာေစရန္ အသံုးျပဳသည့့္ ဘိန္းမွ ထုတ္လုပ္ ရရွိေသာ မွိန္းေဆးတစ္မ်ိဳးေပါ့။
Description
When raw opium is purified, a light brown powder called morphine base is
produced. Morphine itself is a white powder. It can come in block,
tablet, capsule, powder or solution form.
The Effects
If an abuser tries to stop using morphine, his body reacts strongly and he experiences painful withdrawal symptoms:
•Aches and spasms
•Stomach cramps and convulsions
•Shaking and vomiting
•Running nose
•Watery eyes
•Loss of appetite
•Diarrhoea
Penalties
•Illegal traffic, import or export of morphine of more than 30 grams – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of morphine – up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
၁၂။ ဘိန္း (Opium)
Description
Raw opium is brown, hard like rubber and has a strong smell. When it is
cooked, it becomes dark brown or black colour and is called “prepared
opium”.
Apparatus for Opium
•In most cases, opium is usually smoked by using opium pipes of
different forms. The pipe has a long thick stem with a bowl-shaped head
at one end. A small piece of opium is put into the head of the pipe and
heated. Smoke is produced and inhaled through the stem of the pipe.
The Effects
If an abuser tries to stop using opium, his body reacts strongly and he experiences painful withdrawal symptoms:
•Aches and spasms
•Stomach cramps and convulsions
•Shaking and vomiting
•Running nose
•Watery eyes
•Loss of appetite
•Diarrhoea
Penalties
•Illegal traffic, import or export of opium of more than 1200g and containing more than 30g of morphine – DEATH.
•Possession and consumption of opium – up to S$20,000 fine or 10 years imprisonment or BOTH.
အဲဒါေတြပါပဲ။ ဘာရယ္လို႕မဟုတ္ပါဘူး သိထားေတာ့ ေကာင္းတာေပါ့။ ဗဟုသုတလည္း
ရတာေပါ့။ တစ္ခုသတိထားရမွာ ကီလို ေရာင္းတဲ့အခါမွာ စစ္ေဆးဖို႕လိုလိမ့္မယ္။
သူမ်ားပစၥည္းသယ္တဲ့အခါ အဲဒီ ေဆး၀ါးတစ္မ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးပါေနရင္
မိမိတာ၀န္သာျဖစ္ေပတယ္။ ရတာနဲ႕ ရွင္းရတာ မကာမိပါဘူး။ ရွင္းမႏိုင္ရင္
အထက္ေဖာ္ျပပါအတိုင္း ျပစ္ဒဏ္က်ခံရလိမ့္မယ္။

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