——-
၊အမွန္မွာခုေလာက္ဆို၊လူေတြကအေၾကာင္းစုံကိုသိၾကပါျပီ၊ဒီလိုနဲ႕မျပီးပါ၊
၊လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ၊ကုန္က်စရိတ္ဆိုတာရွိတယ္၊မတူကြဲျပားၾကတာကိုသိရဲ့လား?
၊ဘယ္ဟာကဘယ္လို၊စရိတ္အတိအက်ေကာသိရဲ့လား? ၊မွ်ေပးပါအုန္းလား?
၊သတိျပဳရန္အခ်က္၊
၊အျခားနည္းေတြရွိေပမဲ့လဲ၊၎နည္းမ်ိဳးစုံတို႕ရဲ့လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈကုန္က်
စရိတ္ေတြဟာ၊ျမစ္ဆံုေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ရဲ့ထုတ္လုပ္မႈကုန္က်စရိတ္ထက္ၾကီးမားၾကပါတယ္၊
၊ျမစ္ဆုံလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈကုန္က်စရိတ္ဟာသက္သာမယ္ဆိုတာကို၊
၊မ်က္ကြယ္ျပဳလ်စ္လ်ဴ႐ႈထားတယ္၊
ဒီအခ်က္ကအင္မတန္အေရးၾကီးတယ္၊

Myitsone Dam

It is expected to provide 6,000 megawatts of electricity
If the project had been completed as planned for 2017, it would have been the fifteenth largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myitsone_Dam

 

ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာအေၾကာင္း အမွားနဲ႕အမွန္ – – Myitsone Myths and Truths XXXXI

http://myanmargazette.net/229489
၊ျမစ္ဆုံလုပ္ရင္ခ်မ္းသာလာမယ္လို႕ဒီေမးခြန္းကမျငင္းပါ၊သြယ္ဝိႈက္ျပီးဝန္ခံထားပါတယ္၊
သို႕ေသာ္လည္းအျခားနည္းနဲ႕လုပ္ေစလိုတယ္၊ဒီျမစ္ဆံုနည္းကိုစြန္႕လႊတ္
ဖို႕ဆႏၵကေပၚလြင္ေနပါတယ္၊

၊ေဒါက္တာသန္းထြဋ္ေအာင္ကကိန္းဂဏန္းဟုတ္တိပတ္တိနဲ႕ျပတယ္
၊၊ဒီကမျပရဲတာ၊ကြာတယ္
၊ေသးသိမ္ေအာင္လုပ္ပံုက၊မတန္ဘူး၊သိပ္မရဘူး၊ရွုံးေတာင္ရွုံးအုန္းမယ္ဆိုျပီး၊လိုက္ျဖန္းဘို႕ပါဘဲ၊
၊ဒီကတင္တဲ့မွတ္ခ်က္ကဂဏန္းေတြမျပရဲဘဲ၊တျခားနည္းကလဲခ်မ္းသာမယ္၊ဒိထက္ေတာင္ ၊
၊ခ်မ္းသာႏိုင္တယ္လို႕မတင္မက် မေကာင္းတဲ့ဘက္ကိုဆက္ေတြးရေအာင္ဘီးတပ္ေပးလိုတာပါ၊
၊ဒုကၡေရာက္မယ္ဆိုျပီးမဟုတ္မဟပ္ေရာ ထဲ့လိုက္ေသးတယ္၊

—–
၊ေကာင္းျပီ၊အျခားနည္းရွိေၾကာင္းသာဆိုခ်င္တယ္၊အဲဒီနည္းကိုလဲမေဖာ္၊
၊ဘာျဖစ္လို႕မေဖာ္ျပရမွာလဲ၊ဘယ္တနည္းကဘယ္ေလာက္ေကာင္းတယ္ဆိုတာ၊
၊ျမစ္ဆုံနည္းထက္ဘယ္ေလာက္ပိုေကာင္းမယ္ဆိုတာမျပထားမျပႏိုင္ပါ၊
၊ေရႊကေလာင္ရွင္ေဒါက္တာသန္းထြဋ္ေအာင္ကိုအရင္ကေခ်ပရွင္းလင္းျပီးပါျပီ၊
၊သူေျပာတဲ့၊ေက်ာက္စိမ္းေလလံတင္လို႕ႏွစ္စဥ္ရတဲ့$ သန္းေပါင္း၊
၊ဂတ္စ္ ရေငြ$သန္းေပါင္းတို႕ထက္ေတာင္
၊ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာေၾကာင့္ရမဲ့$သန္းေပါင္းကသာလြန္ေနေၾကာင္းေခ်ပခဲ့ပါတယ္၊
၊ေရႊကေလာင္ရွင္ကအထင္ၾကီးတဲ့အဲဒီႏွစ္မ်ိဳးကကုန္ခမ္းမဲ့၊
သက္တမ္းရွိတာကိုခ်ိဳျပီးေျပာတယ္၊ျမစ္ဆုံေရအားကဒီလိုကုန္ခမ္းတာမဟုတ္ဘဲ၊
ေရေတြကအလိုအေလ်ာက္ျဖည့္တင္းလာေၾကာင္း ရွင္းလင္းေခ်ပခဲ့ပါတယ္

 


၃၊မွတ္ခ်က္ေတြ
၊ျမစ္ဆုံဆည္တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္းကိုလုံးဝသေဘာမတူႏိုင္ပါေၾကာင္းထပ္မံကန္႔ကြက္ပါတယ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊၊ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးိုးတက္ေရးအတြက္ျမစ္ဆုံဆည္တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္းသည္တစ္ခုတည္းေသာအေကာင္းဆုံနည္းလမ္းလည္းမဟုတ္ပါ၊
၊ေျဖ
၊ဘာေၾကာင့္အေကာင္းဆုံးမဟုတ္ေၾကာင္းကိုေဖာ္မျပႏိုင္၊သက္ေသအေထာက္အထားမျပႏိုင္လို႕
၊မိမိရဲ့စိတ္ထင္သာသာပါဘဲ၊ ၊အေမရိကန္စြမ္းအင္ဝန္ၾကီး၊အိႏၵိယစြမ္းအင္ဝန္ၾကီး႒ာန၊၊၊၊ၾကိဳက္ရာတို႕ကိုေမးပါအုန္း၊
၊စီပီအိုင္ကိုလဲေမးျမန္းႏိုင္တယ္၊တဘက္သတ္စြပ္စြဲေနမဲ့အစားတဘက္သားကိုေျဖရွင္းခြင့္ေပးရင္မေကာင္းဘူးလား၊


 

ေအရာဝတီျမစ္ရုိးတေလ်ွာက္ေျမနုကြ်န္းအသက္ေမြးဝမ္းေက်ာင္းေနျကရတဲ႕ျပည္သူေတြဒုတ္ခေေရာက္မွာတကယ္

၊ေျဖ

၊ေရမခမ္း၊ေရကိုအလံုကာတာမဟုတ္၊ခါတိုင္းလိုေရေတြစီးဆင္းမွာပါ၊မိုးၾကီးခ်ိန္မွာေရနဲနဲခ်င္းတႏွစ္ျပီးတႏွစ္စုတယ္၊
၊၉၇%၊ေသာျမစ္ေရကိုမယူပါ၊၃%ထိဘဲ၊ေနာက္ျပီးဓာတ္အားထုတ္ဖို႕ေရေတြကိုလႊတ္ခ်ရတယ္
၊ဒီလိုနဲ႕ေရေတြကခါတိုင္းလိုဆက္စီးဆင္းတယ္၊သံုး%ဘဲဆိုေတာ့မမ်ားပါ၊

(၊အေမရိကန္ေရကာတာကျမစ္ေရရဲ့၁၇%ကိုစုျပီးယူသုံးတယ္၊ေရကာတာခုႏွစ္ေသာင္း၊ရွစ္ေသာင္းရွိတယ္၊_
ေရကာတာအသစ္ေတြမွာရႊန္႕ႏြန္ႏွုန္းေျမေတြမ်ားမ်ားစားစားကိုမၾကာမၾကာထုတ္လႊတ္ပါတယ္၊

ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာအေၾကာင္း အမွားနဲ႕အမွန္ – – Myitsone Myths and Truths XX

 


 

၊ျပည္သူအတြက္ေကာင္းက်ိဳးတခုနဲ႔ဆုိးက်ိဳးေျခာက္ခုဘယ္ဟာေရြးမလဲ

ေျဖ
၊ယံုတမ္းေျပာေနတာအေျခအျမစ္မရွိပါ၊
၊ႏိုင္ငံတကာလိုလိုေရကာတာလုပ္ၾကတယ္၊
၊ေကာင္းက်ိဳးကအတိုင္းထက္အလြန္မ်ားပါတယ္၊ဆိုးက်ိဳးကိုေခတ္မွီစက္မႈလက္မႈtသိပၸံ
ပညာ၊ေရကာတာသိပၸံပညာတို႕နဲ႕ထိန္းထားပါတယ္၊

 

 


 

လက္ရွိကေန လက္မဲ႕ ဘဝေရာက္မယ္ေနာ ရမွာက ၊ေသခ်ာ ပ်တ္စီးမွာကေတာ႔၊ေသခ်ာ

ေျဖ

၊ေျဗာင္းျပန္ေျပာေနတာ၊ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္တဲ့ႏိုင္ငံ၊ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးစႏိုင္ငံေတြသြားၾကည့္ပါ၊

၊လွ်ပ္စစ္အားရလို႕စက္႐ံုေတြ၊လုပ္ငန္းေတြလည္ပတ္ႏိုင္တယ္၊အလုပ္သမားပါအလုပ္ရလာၾကတယ္၊

အလုပ္လက္မဲ့ျဖစ္ဖို႕ေသခ်ာတယ္ဆိုရင္ဟားစရာျဖစ္ေနမွာပါ၊
NGO၊အင္ဂ်ိအိုေတြကမသိနားမလည္တဲ့အရပ္သားေတြကိုအေမွာင့္လုပ္ငန္းေကာဠဟာဠလႊင့္ေနတာပါ၊


 

၊ျမစ္​ဆံုတည္​​ေဆာက္​ရင္​ဧရာ၀တီ​ေျပာက္​ၿပီ

ေျဖ

၊အလကားေျပာတာ၊ဦးဟြန္းလြင္ကတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံျမစ္အခရာ၇စင္းေကာတယ္(ေပ်ာက္တယ္)
၊ဆိုတာမဟုတ္ေၾကာင္းေခ်ပရွင္းလင္းျပီးပါျပီ၊ဓာတ္ပံုနဲ႕တကြတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံအႏွံ႕အျပားကိုလိုက္ျပျပီးပါျပီ၊
၊ႏိုင္ငံတကာေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြကသြားၾကည့္ရင္ေတာင္ဒီေလာက္စံုလင္စြာၾကည့္ခြင့္ရမယ္လို႕မထင္ပါ၊

၊ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာအေၾကာင္း အမွားနဲ႕အမွန္ – – Myitsone Myths and Truths – LXVI

 


 

၊ျမစ္ဆံုေရအားမွထုတ္ယူရမည့္ဓာတ္အားေလာက္ကိုခ်ီေဖြငယ္ေရအားလၽွပ္စစ္လိုအန္ဒရယ္မရိဘဲထုတ္ယူႏိုင္တဲ့ေခ်ာင္း
၊ကေထာင္ဂဏန္းေလာက္ရွိေနပါတယ္ဘာ့ေၾကာင့္လည္းဆိုတာစဥ္း
စားၾကည့္ၾကပါ

ေျဖ

၊မသိနားမလည္လို႕ေျပာတာပါ၊ေခ်ာင္းကေလးျမင္တိုင္းတြက္ေခ်ကိုက္ျပီးေရရွည္အက်ိဳးေပးမဲ့ေနရာဟုတ္ခ်င္မွဟုတ္မွာ၊၊
၊အက်ိဳးအမ်ားဆုံးေပးႏိုင္မဲ့အတန္းအစားလဲျဖစ္ရမယ္၊လုပ္ေပးႏိုင္မဲ့ပညာရွင္ေတြနဲ႕စက္ကိရိယာ၊ေငြေၾကးရံပံုေငြသန္းခ်ီ
၊ရွိရတယ္၊  


 


 

၊တိုင္းျပည္တိုးတက္ဖို ့စြမ္းအင္အတြက္ ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားလိုညူဓါတ္ေပါင္းဖိုလုပ္မလား?ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားမွာ ဓါတ္ေပါင္းဖို ၁၇ လံုးေတာင္ရွိတယ္
တလံုးေပါက္ကြဲရင္ တျပုင္နက္အားလံုးေပါက္ကြဲမွာပါ
၊ကိုရီးယားတနိုင္ငံလံုးသာမကတရုတ္နိုင္ငံတဝက္ေလာက္ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ျပီးနွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ…

ေျဖ

မွန္တယ္၊ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံဖူကူရွီမာအရပ္ကအႏူျမဴဓာတ္ေပါင္းဖိုနဲ႕လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္တာကေန၊ဆူနာမီေၾကာင့္ေပါက္ကြဲတာလူ၁၅၄၀၀၀ကိုေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ရတယ္၊
၊အသက္အႏၲရယ္ၾကီးပါတယ္၊

 


၊တိုင္းျပည္တိုးတက္ဖို ့စြမ္းအင္အတြက္ ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားလိုညူဓါတ္ေပါင္းဖိုလုပ္မလား?ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားမွာ ဓါတ္ေပါင္းဖို ၁၇ လံုးေတာင္ရွိတယ္
တလံုးေပါက္ကြဲရင္ တျပုင္နက္အားလံုးေပါက္ကြဲမွာပါ
၊ကိုရီးယားတနိုင္ငံလံုးသာမကတရုတ္နိုင္ငံတဝက္ေလာက္ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ျပီးနွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ…
ေျဖ
၊မွန္တယ္၊ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံဖူကူရွီမာအရပ္ကအႏူျမဴဓာတ္ေပါင္းဖိုနဲ႕လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္တာကေန၊ဆူနာမီေၾကာင့္ေပါက္ကြဲတာလူ၁၅၄၀၀၀ကိုေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ရတယ္၊
၊အသက္အႏၲရယ္ၾကီးပါတယ္၊

၄၊ေရကာတာအေသးစားရဲ့ဆိုးက်ိဳး

၊တဘက္ကေရကာတာအၾကီးကိုေထာက္ခံျပီး ၊တဘက္ကဆန္႕က်င္တဲ့အၾကားမွာ
။စကားနဲရန္ဆဲနဲ႕ဆိုျပီးေရကာတာအေသးေတြသြားလုပ္ရင္ဒုကၡေရာက္ႏိုင္မယ္၊
 

၊အိႏၵိယကသာဓကကိုျပမယ္၊

(၊ျမစ္ဆံုေရကာတာအစား၊ေရကာတာအေသးစားေတြနဲ႕အစားထိုးတာမ်ိဳးမလုပ္မိဘို႕ပါ) သူမ်ားရဲ့အမွားကကိုယ့္အတြက္တန္ဘိုးမျဖတ္ႏိုင္တဲ့သခၤဏ္းစာ
၂၀၁၄ဩဂုတ္၄ရက္ေန႕ထုတ္
၊နံမယ္ၾကီးYale ၊တကၠသိုလ္ရဲ့ပညာေပးစာေဆာင္မွေကာက္ႏုတ္သည္၊
၊ေရကာတာအေသးစားတိုးေဆာက္လို႕ဒုကၡေရာက္
As Small Hydropower Expands, So Does Caution on Its Impacts
Small hydropower projects have the potential to bring electricity to millions of people now living off the grid. But experts warn that planners must carefully consider the cumulative effects of constructing too many small dams in a single watershed.
By Dave Levitan • August 4, 2014
http://e360.yale.edu/features/as_small_hydropower_expands_so_does_caution_on_its_impacts

အိႏၵိၵိယေျမာက္ပိုင္းဟိမဝႏၲာေတာင္ၾကားက”၊ဥတၱရခန္”ျပည္နယ္သစ္မွာလူ၁၀သန္းေနထိုင္ၾကျပီး
၊လယ္လုပ္ၾကတယ္၊အိႏၵိယႏိုင္ငံမွာလွ်ပ္စစ္မီး၊အားမရၾကသူေပါင္းသန္း၄၀၀အနက္မွဒီျပည္နယ္သားေတြ
၊လဲ၊,ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားပါတယ္၊

အရြယ္အစား၊ထုထည္ပမာဏေသးလို႕ေရကာတာအေသးေတြကအၾကီးေတြလိုမေတာင့္တင္း၊
မၾကံ့ခိုင္ႏိုင္၊မိုးၾကီးခ်ိန္မွာေတာင္ေပၚကဒလေဟာစီးဆင္းလာတဲ့မိုးေရေတြေၾကာင့္ပ်က္စီးတယ္၊
၂၅MW ေအာက္အေသးေတြေတာ္ေတာ္ပါတယ္၊အၾကီးေတြဘာမွမျဖစ္ပါ၊

 

 

I

nternational Conference on Small Hydropower – Hydro Sri Lanka, 22-24 October 2007

Hydro Power Potential in Uttarakhand

M.C. Joshi
Department of Energy, Govt. of Uttarakhand, Dehradun. E-mail: joshi_mc@rediffmail.com

 

Extracts

၊အေသးစားေရကာတာတို႕ရဲ့အခက္အခဲအားနဲခ်က္ေတြ

6 CHALLENGES

The Operation of Small Hydro Power Projects poses unique challenges:

  1. The power stations are located in remote hilly areas where even road linkages are not available.
  2. The small hydro power stations are prone to natural calamities such as flash floods due to cloud bursting, land sliding, avalanche’s causing heavy damages & long shut downs. Road blockages &severe climatic conditions causing difficulty in construction, operation & maintenance.
  3. Small Hydro Power Stations arc normally connected through service lines or weak gridconnections, therefore incidence of disruptions are mainly, causing low generation.
  4. The specific cost (Cost/kW) of a small hydro projects generally tends to be higher because of the intrinsic reasons associated with them comparatively small power output. The specialized nature of the generating plant and equipment especially in case of very small heads, leads tocomparatively higher cost of generation.
  5. Due to their locations in far off & inaccessible locations of the state, it is difficult to providenecessary technical skill & spares in case of breakdown, necessitating long shut down requiringheavy expenditure & loss of revenue.
  6. The load factor of SHP’s tend to lower and there is considerable variability in quantum ofgeneration across different SHP’s in different years. An important reason for there variations in output is the lack of critical size in case of SHP & also varying hydrological and climatic conditions for year to year.
  7. The plants have to be shut down for app. 30- days during monsoons due to high silt contents & debris in the flowing water which can not be handled by D-silting tanks. This happens normally every year.
  8. Some of the commissioned plants have highly sophisticated machines and without the availability of skilled labour in remote areas, there is lot of difficulty in operating & maintaining them. As a result the machines are degenerating and their efficiencies are declining.
  9. Many a times the telephone lines remain interrupted that create lack of communication, especially during monsoon.
  10. Long transmission lines arc prone to frequent damages.

 

 


 

ပါကစၥတန္ကေရကာတာသတင္း
၊ေရကာတာေတြကဦးေဆာင္ျပီးေရွ႕ကေျပးေနတယ္

၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကေစ်းအသက္သာဆုံး၊တစ္ယူနစ္ကို႐ူပီ ၁.၅၀
Furnace Oil၊ေလာင္စာဆီကို႐ူပီ၁၆.၀၀၊ေပးျပီးႏိုင္ငံျခားမွတင္သြင္းရတယ္၊


 

Hydroelectric Power Leading the Way in Pakistan
By RAFAEL TABLADO . Jul 25, 2014, 11:24AM

http://www.energydigital.com/renewable-energy/hydroelectric-power-leading-way-pakistan

Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) said it supplied 31.804 billion units of hydroelectric power to the national grid in 2013-2014. This is compared to 29.560 billion units for the previous years—a decrease of 1.524 billion units.

“This additional contribution of low-cost electricity helped the national exchequer save about Rs24.38 billion, which otherwise would have been spent on generating an equal volume of electricity from costly imported oil,” a Wapda spokesperson said.

Hydroelectric is also the cheapest form of energy the country has. This year, generation of hydroelectric power cost roughly Rs1.50 per unit, whereas the average unit cost for imported furnace oil was Rs16.

The country’s largest hydroelectric power station, Tarbela, produced 15.138 billion units in 2013-2014, which is an increase from 2012-2013’s 14.755 billion units.

Mangla, which is the 9th largest damn in the world, recently completed its capacity-increasing project, and generated 5.725 billion units in the same year period, compared to 4.576 for the previous period.

Wapda accounts for at least a third of the country’s hydroelectric power at about 7,000 megawatts generated. According to them, it’s the cheapest, cleanest, and most environmentally-friendly way of generating electricity. The method is becoming increasingly popular in the country.

This week, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif announced that ground officially broke on the 4,320MW Dasu hydropower plant.

The plant is on the Indus River and will be located about 240km upstream from Tarbela.

The Indus River is an untapped resource of hydroelectric potential, with estimates placing it as having a potential to generate up to 40,000MW.


HYDROPOWER COSTS | RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDROELECTRICITY COSTS VS OTHER RENEWABLE & FOSSIL COST
၊ေရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္တာက
၊အျခားနည္းေတြအားလုံးထက္သက္သာတယ္၊
(၊ျပတ္ေတာက္ျပတ္ေတာက္မဟုတ္ဘဲ)၊အားလဲအားကိုးရတယ္  

Hydropower Costs | Renewable Energy Hydroelectricity Costs vs Other Renewable & Fossil Costs

Hydropower costs reportedly equal the lowest levelized price of electricity compared to all major renewable energy and fossil fuel sources.

This clean electricity source is regarded as the most mature, reliable, and cost-effective renewable power generation technology available in the world. Hydropower operations usually have flexibility in their design as well and can be structured to meet baseload and peak demands.


 

 

 

၁၉၈၀မွ၁၉၉၈ထိေရကာတာတိုးေဆာက္လာၾကတယ္
၊ကမ႓ာအရပ္ရပ္ကဓာက္အားအသုံးလိုလို႕

၁၉၉၉ကေန၂၀၀၅ထိသိပ္မတက္ရပ္တန္႕သြားသလိုပါ၊WCD၊ကမ႓ာ့ေရကာတာေကာ္မရွင္ကတင္းၾကပ္တဲ့စည္းကမ္းေတြကို၂၀၀၀မွာ ၊ ျပဌန္းလာလို႕ျဖစ္တယ္၊
၊ 

။၂၀၀၅ေနာက္ပိုင္းမွာေရကာတာေတြကိုယခင္ထက္ေတာင္
၊ပိုမိုေဆာက္ၾကတယ္၊(မွ်ားအစိမ္းကပိုျပီးအေပၚေထာင္ေနတာ)
၊ကမ႓ာအရပ္ရပ္ကပိုေဆာက္ၾကေပမဲ့ ၊၎တို႕ရဲ့စုစုေပါင္းတို႕ထက္
၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကေရကာတာေဆာက္လုပ္ၾကတယ္

Source: IHA, EIA

Figure 1 shows the historical growth of hydropower since 1980. The blue arrow represents a general historic increase in hydropower in response to growing demand for electricity worldwide.

From 1999 through 2005 (illustrated by the orange arrow), hydropower development was largely halted worldwide, reflecting the impact of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), which was convened to review the development effectiveness of large dams and develop guidelines for the development of new dams. The report, published by the WCD in 2000, challenged existing practices and proposed stringent guidelines for dams, which in turn caused a sharp decrease in investments while the sector and the financial community considered how to respond to new standards and expectations.


Table 1 shows the nations with the largest hydropower capacities in the world. In recent years China has taken centre stage for hydropower capacity, accounting for 26% of global installed capacity in 2015, far ahead of USA (8.4%), Brazil (7.6%) and Canada (6.5%). China has strengthened its dominant position by adding 19 GW in 2015, almost three times the new capacity of the next five countries combined.


၂၀၁၅ဇယားအရတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံက ၁၁၂၆TWh နဲ႕ေရွ႕ကေျပးေနတယ္


၊ႏိုင္ငံေတြကလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားကိုနည္းမ်ိဳးစံုနဲ႕ထုတ္လုပ္တယ္၊
၎အနက္၂၅ႏိုင္ငံကမိမိတို႕အသုံးျပဳတဲ့၉၀%လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား
၊ဟာေရအားမွထုတ္ယူတာျဖစ္တယ္

၁၂ႏိုင္ငံက၁၀၀%၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုဘဲအားကိုး၊
၆၅ႏိုင္ငံကေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုမ်ားမ်ားစားစားသုံး
၁၅၀ႏိုင္ငံေရအားကိုအတိုင္းအတာတခုခုနဲ႕အလိုက္အထိုက္သုံး
ယူအက္စ္၊ကေနဒါ၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံေတြကလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားအမ်ားဆုံးသုံး

hydropower Italy shutterstock_264272234 (1)

World Hydropower Electricity Production

Hydropower produces around 16 % of the world’s electricity and over 80% of the world’s renewable electricity.

Currently, more than 25 countries in the world depend on hydropower for 90 % of their electricity supply (99.3 % in Norway), and 12 countries are 100% reliant on hydro. Hydropower also produces a large share of electricity in 65 countries and is used at some level by more than 150 countries. Canada, China, and the United States have the largest hydropower generation capacity.

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), hydropower is the most flexible source of power generation available. It is also capable of responding to demand fluctuations in a short time sequence.

“Although other plants, notably conventional thermal power plants, can respond to load fluctuations, their response times are not as fast and often are not as flexible over their full output band. In addition to grid flexibility and security services (spinning reserve), hydropower dams with large reservoir storage be used to store energy over time to meet system peaks or demand decoupled from inflows. Storage can be over days, weeks, months, seasons or even years depending on the size of the reservoir.”

The National Hydropower Association (NHA) highlights that hydropower generation benefits consumers through lower electricity costs. States in this country getting the majority of their electricity from hydropower include Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. On average, residents there have energy bills which are lower than the rest of the country. Relying only on the power of moving water, hydro prices don’t depend on unpredictable changes in fuel costs.

When evaluating cost factors, hydropower shows the lowest levelized cost of electricity across all major fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. In addition, it actually costs less than energy efficiency options, according to a recent study from Navigant Consulting and the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE).


 

 

၊ေလာင္စာမဟုတ္တဲ့အပိုင္းမွာေရကာတာအၾကီးကအသက္သာဆုံး၊
ေရကာတာအေသးစားနဲ႕လုပ္ရင္ႏွစ္ျပန္ျဖစ္ျပီးအျခားနည္းေတြထက္ေတာင္
၊ၾကီးလာ( Ocean၊ပင္လယ္ကထုတ္နည္းေလာက္မၾကီးေသး႕၊
။ပင္လယ္နည္းကအရမ္းေစ်းၾကီး

 

 


hydropower costs affordable_graph01LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY FOR VARIOUS POWER AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPTIONS, ¢/KWH — National Hydropower Association
The above chart shows the relatively low cost of hydro in terms of maintenance, operations, and fuel costs when compared with other electricity sources and across a full project lifetime. For hydro projects, a longer lifespan (the Navigant study assumed 50 years) means not only are costs spread across a longer timeframe but also takes into account that the power generating equipment used at these facilities can often operate for long periods of time without needing major replacements or repairs.

———
၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကကုန္က်စရိတ္သက္သာ၊
၊လွ်ပ္စစ္အားကိုသိုေလွာင္ရာမွာအထိေရာက္ဆုံး၊အသက္သာဆုံး

Annual Operations & Maintenance Costs

The IRENA study concludes, “Hydropower is the only large-scale and cost-efficient storage technology available today. Despite promising developments in other energy storage technologies, hydropower is still the only technology offering economically viable large-scale storage. It is also a relatively efficient energy storage option.”

IRENA reports average investment costs for large hydropower plants with storage typically range from as low as $1,050/kW to as high as $7,650/kW, while the range for small hydropower projects is between $1,300/kW and $8,000/kW. Adding additional capacity at existing hydropower operations or existing dams that don’t have a hydropower plant can be significantly cheaper, and can cost as little as $500/kW.

New technologies are also viewed as holding tremendous promise for further hydropower development, including marine and hydrokinetics.

Installed project costs – as opposed to levelized electricity costs – also need to be considered regarding hydropower. There is no standard, based on the various types and sizes of hydro projects and number of technologies deployed.


 

၊အေမရိကန္ဝစ္ကြန္စစ္ျပည္နယ္ကသတင္း

Facts about Hydropower

 

Via the Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company:

 

၊တခ်ိန္တုန္းက ၊ကေနဒါ၊ယူအက္စ္၊႐ူရွားတို႕ကေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုအမ်ားဆုံးထုတ္ခဲ့တယ္
တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကပဥၥမပါ

 

 


  ၊ေလာင္စာမသုံး(၊ေလာင္စာမဲ့)လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္နည္းမ်ိဳးစုံရွိရာ၊ေရarrအားလွ်ပ္စစ္နည္းက ၉၇.၉ %နဲ႕အမ်ားဆုံးသုံးၾကတယ္

 

၊ေရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္တာတစ္ျပား(တဆင့္)ေတာင္မရွိပါ၊
၊ေရကာတာလည္ပတ္မႈစရိတ္ကအဝါေရာင္၊
၊ေရကာတာျပဳျပင္ထိန္းသိမ္းမႈစရိတ္လအနီေရာင္

အျခားနည္းမွာေလာင္စာအစိမ္းေရာင္ကမနဲပါ၊ဓာတ္ေငြ႕ဆိုေခါင္ခိုက္တယ္

၊ဒီတနည္းမွဘဲလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္ႏိုင္မွာလား?
၊ဒီတနည္းကဘဲခ်မ္းသာမွာလား?

၊ဆိုျပီးေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္နည္းကိုအထင္မၾကီးတဲ့သူေ႒းသားေတြသတိျပဳရန္၊

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_08_04.html

How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types of power plants? – FAQ – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

 


 


၂၀၁၆မွာလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္နည္းအလိုက္စုစုေပါင္းကုန္က်စာရိတ္ဟာ
အႏူျမဴးနည္း       ၂၅.၃၆mil  ၂.၅၃cent
၊ေလာင္စာနည္း           ၃၆.၀၈mil   ၃.၆၁cent
၊ေရအားမွထုတ္နည္း   ၁၀.၉၈mil   ၁.၁၀cent
ဓာဟ္ေငြ႕နည္းနဲ႕
အေသးစား                     ၃၀.၁၉mil    ၃.၀၂cent
၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကဘဲသက္သာ


၊ယူအက္စ္စြမ္းအားျပန္ၾကားေရးဌာနကဇယား


 

၊ယူအက္စ္စြမ္းအားျပန္ၾကားေရးဌာနကေရတိုေမွ်ာ္မွန္းခ်က္ဇယား

၂၀၁၂မွ၂၀၁၈ထိ၊ႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကိုၾကည့္ျပီးခန္႕မွန္းေနတာ၊
၊လူေနအိမ္အတြက္၁၂ျပား(ဆင့္)
၊စီးပြါးေရးဆိုင္ခန္းအတြက္၁၀ျပား(ဆင့္)
၊စက္ရုံစက္မႈလကမႉအတြက္၇ျပား(ဆင့္)
ေလာက္ပါ၊

၊လွ်ပ္စစ္ခေတြေတာ္ေတာ္သက္သာတဲ့အၾကားမွာစက္မႉလက္မႉထြန္းကားေအာင္
လူေတြလဲအလုပ္ရၾကေအာင္ ၊စက္မႈလက္မႈ၊စက္႐ံုအပိုင္းအတြက္လွ်ပ္စစ္ခကို
၊ထပ္ခ်ျပစ္ပံုရတယ္၊


(၊ျမစ္ဆံုတို႕ေအာင္ျမင္ျပီး၊လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားအလ်ံပယ္ျဖစ္လာရင္လုပ္ငန္းရွင္ေတြ

၊ရဲ့လွ်ပ္စစ္ခကိုခ်ေပးႏိုင္မယ္ဒိအျပင္၊

၊မက္လုံးတရပ္အေနျဖင့္ႏိုင္ငံျခားအရင္းအႏွီးသစ္ေတြကိုပါစြဲေဆာင္ႏိုင္တယ္၊ဓာတ္အားေတြကို
၊ေရာင္းခ်ႏိုင္တယ္)

 

၊အပိုအလွ်ံေတြကိုဘာလုပ္မွာလဲဆိုသူေတြသိေအာင္သူေဌးျဖစ္ေအာင္နည္းလမ္းထပ္ရွာရင္ရပါတယ္၊

၊ပိုလာတဲ့ဓာတ္အားသုံးလို႕ေရခဲတုံးေတြ၊အေအးခန္းေတြAir Conditioning၊အဲကုံးေတြကိုပိုလုပ္ေဆာင္လာႏိုင္တယ္၊
။ယိုးဒယားလို၊ ေရခဲတုံးေတြနဲ႕ပင္လယ္မွာငါးဖမ္းျပီးကမ႓ာကိုတင္

 

ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာအေၾကာင္း အမွားနဲ႕အမွန္ – – Myitsone Myths and Truths XLVIII

 

ပို႕၊အလားတူအေအးခန္းလုပ္ကာသားငါးအသီးေတြကို ၊တာရွည္သိုေလွာင္ျပီးေရာင္းႏိုင္ရင္ေစ်းပိုရမယ္
က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႕ျပန္႕ကိုပို႕ႏိုင္တယ္၊

၊ဓာတ္ေငြ႕ကုန္လုနီးျဖစ္တဲ့ယိုးဒယား၊ပိုးလမ္းမေၾကာင့္ၾကီးပြါးတိုးခ်ဲ႕မဲ့အားရွန္ႏိုင္ငံမ်ား
၊ဓာတ္အားလိုလာပါလိမ့္မယ္၊ေအာက္ပိုင္းကဗီဒီယိုတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံနဲ႕အိႏၵိယကၾကီးပြါး
၊လာျပီး၊ႏွစ္ႏိုင္ငံစလုံးကယူအက္စ္ကိုမၾကာမီေက်ာ္တက္ေတာ့မယ္၊
၊ေရႊျဖဴဆိုတဲ့ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္လိုအပ္လိမ့္မယ္၊(၊ေရကအလကားျဖစ္သြားမဲ့၊စီးဆင္းသြားမဲ့
အတူတူ)
https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/data/browser/#/?v=21&f=A&s=&start=2012&end=2018&map=&ctype=linechart&maptype=0&id=&linechart=ESRCU_US~ESCMU_US~ESICU_US

 


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_hydroelectric_power_stations_in_the_United_States

List of largest hydroelectric power stations in the United States


၊မသိတာရွိရင္အိႏၵိယစြမ္းအားဌာနကအြန္လိုင္းလုပ္ထားတယ္၊
အေမရိကန္ျပည္မနဲ႕ျပည္နယ္အစိုးရေတြ၊အီးယူးႏိုင္ငံပါkကစၥတန္စသျဖင့္

လဲထားၾကတယ္၊တတ္ႏိုင္သေလာက္ထားရင္ေကာမေကာင္းဘူးလား

 


 

Home

http://powermin.nic.in/en/content/faqs-hydropower

FAQ’S (Frequently asked Questions)

Extracts:

How does cost of generation from Hydropower Plant compare with other sources of electricity?
The hydropower generation is highly capital-intensive mode of electricity generation but being renewable source of energy with no consumables involved; there is very little recurring cost and hence no high long term expenditure. It is cheaper as compared to electricity generated from coal and gas fired plants. It also reduces the financial losses due to frequency fluctuations and it is more reliable as it is inflation free due to not usage of fossil fuel.

Why hydropower is called renewable source of energy?
Hydropower is called renewable source of energy because it uses and not consumes the water for generation of electricity, and the hydropower leaves this vital resource available for other uses.

၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကေဇးအသက္သာဆုံး၊ေလာင္စာမလိုလို႕ကုန္ေစ်းႏွုန္းလိုက္တက္ျခင္းမရွိပါ

What are approaches to tackle sedimentation problem of reservoir?
The following are some approaches to tackle sedimentation problem of reservoir:-

၊ႏြန္းေျမတင္ရွိျခင္းကိုကုစားေျဖရွင္းနည္းလမ္းရွိတယ္

Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) for reduction of silt load includes forestations of the catchment area and constructions of check dams on the tributaries and upstream of the river.
Effective desilting arrangements for prevention of silt.
Silt resistant equipments of withstanding the silt.
Effective operation of the reservoir to minimize silt deposition.


France[edit]

၊ျပင္သစ္မွာလဲေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကအသက္သာဆုံး

The International Agency for the Energy and EDF have estimated for 2011 the following costs.

For the nuclear power they include the costs due to new safety investments to upgrade the French nuclear plant after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster; the cost for those investments is estimated at 4 €/MWh.

Currently solar power is by far the most expensive renewable source to produce electricity among the technologies studied,[citation needed] although increasing efficiency and longer lifespan of photovoltaic panels together with reduced production costs could make this source of energy more competitive. In 2017, cost of generation decrease to 55,5€/MWp for plant between 5 to 17MWp.

French LCOE in €/MWh (2011)
Technology Cost in 2011 Cost in 2017
Hydro power 20
Nuclear (with State-covered insurance costs) 50
Natural gas turbines without CO2 capture 61
Onshore wind 69
Solar farms 293 55,5[37]

 

======

၂၀၁၅၊ဟာဗာဒ္ေလ့လာခ်က္အရလွ်ပ္စစ္ခကတယူနစ္ဆိုရင္၂၀၀က်ပ္ (၂၀ဆင့္)
ပို႕ေဆာင္ခအပါအဝင္ဆိုရင္၃၀(ဆင့္)ရွိျပီး၊ဒီဇယ္ေစ်းၾကီးရင္၄၀(ဆင့္)ထိရွိတယ္
အစိုးရပိုင္းကအရွုံးကိုၾကာရွည္မခံႏိုင္လို႕လွ်ပ္စစ္ႏွုန္းအခကထပ္တက္ႏိုင္၊

 

Electricity Supply, Demand and Prices in Myanmar – How to Close the Gap?

 

To summarize:

http://ash.harvard.edu/files/ash/files/electricity_supply_and_demand_how_to_close_the_gap_12-04-2014.pdf?m=1456348424

Normally, diesel is the highest cost but most easily produced form of electricity. As diesel fuel prices fall, the fuel cost of diesel electricity falls as well and it is now about twenty cents (200 kyat) per kWh at world wholesale prices, but not local retail prices. The delivered cost of diesel electricity has to include distribution costs (if not on-site) and capital and operation costs. Together, these exceeded forty cents in the past and are at least thirty cents now.

 


Electricity prices by country in 2015 (in U.S. dollars per kilowatt hour)*

https://www.statista.com/statistics/477995/global-prices-of-electricity-by-select-country/

pics  statista portal

The Average Price of Electricity, Country by Country
September 25, 2013 by Lindsay

Wilsonအိႏၵိယနဲ႕တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကရွစ္ဆင့္နဲ႕အေပါဆုံး

 


Average electricity prices around the world: $/kWh

https://www.ovoenergy.com/guides/energy-guides/average-electricity-prices-kwh.html
ဝယ္အားနဲ႕ဆိုကေနဒါနဲ႕တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကအေပါဆုံး

Canadian electricity is cheap at 10 US cents per kilowatt hour, which is reflected in their high average electricity usage. US electricity prices at 0.12 $/kWh are also quite cheap internationally. In India and China they are very cheap. The UK is in the middle at 20 cents.

 

Average electricity prices kwh

လုပ္အားခသက္သာ၊မီးခသက္သာ၊ၾကိဳးစားခ်င္စိတ္၊၊
။။ေတြေၾကာင့္တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကအတက္ျမန္၊
အေမရိကန္ကိုေက်ာ္တက္ေတာ့မယ္၊

၊ရာဇဝင္မွာ ၊မၾကဳံစဘူး၊ အႏွစ္ ၃၀အတြင္းမွာ၊လူသန္းေပါင္း၇၀၀ကို
၊ဆင္းရဲဘဝမွ၊အလိုက္အထိုက္တတ္ႏိုင္စားႏိုင္တဲ့ဘဝသို႕ျမႇင့္တင္ေပးႏိုင္ခဲ့တယ္

၊cChinaDailyအရ


 

Since initiating market reforms in 1978, China has shifted from a centrally-planned to a market-based economy and has experienced rapid economic and social development. GDP growth has averaged nearly 10 percent a year—the fastest sustained expansion by a major economy in history—and has lifted more than 800 million people out of poverty.

World Bankအရ


 

၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံတိုးတက္ေအာင္ျမင္လာပံု


Published on Jan 24, 2011                       450,790 views
http://www.ted.com Speaking at a TED Salon in London, economist Martin Jacques asks: How do we in the West make sense of China and its phenomenal rise? The author of “When China Rules the World,” he examines why the West often puzzles over the growing power of the Chinese economy, and offers three building blocks for understanding what China is and will become.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes.

 

…တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံတိုးတက္ေအာင္ျမင္လာပံု၊စီးပြါးေရးအပိုင္းမွာအံ့ဩေလာက္ေအာင္တိုးတက္


၊ျပာပံုဘဝမွခ်မ္းသာလာေသာတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံ

 

 

မူလေနရာမွန္အတိုင္းျပန္လဲေနရာရလိုက္ေသာတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံရဲ့ေအာင္ျမင္တိုးတက္မႈ


 

Published on Mar 11, 2012        105,831 views
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull is an Australian politician . A graduate of Sydney Grammar School & the University of Sydney. As a barrister he rose to the public’s attention as the successful advocate in the Spycatcher trial blocking the British Government’s attempts to suppress the memoirs of a former MI5 agent.

After founding how own investment banking firm in 1987 he went on to become a managing director and later a partner of Goldman Sachs. From 1993 to 2000, Turnbull was also the chairman of the Australian Republican Movement. Turnbull has been a director and investor in several successful technologies businesses and is Australia’s richest parliamentarian.

Turnbull was elected as Liberal Party MP for the Sydney seat of Wentworth in 2004.
Turnbull was promoted to Minister for the Environment and Water Resources portfolio. Following the Liberal parties loss to the Labour Party in the 2007 election. Turnbull was appointed as Shadow Treasurer and in September 2008, Turnbull was elected liberal party ( opposition) leader in December 2009 Turnbull lost a leadership ballot to tony Abbott by 42 votes to 41.Following Turnbull’s reelection as MP for Wentworth in the 2010 election he has served as shadow communications minister.

တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံက၊ကမ႓ာကိုျပန္ဦးေဆာင္လာေသာအခါ

 

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order
by Martin Jacques
Reviewed by G. John Ikenberry

https://www.foreignaffairs.com/reviews/capsule-review/2009-11-01/when-china-rules-world-end-western-world-and-birth-new-global

With the prospect of China’s economy surpassing the United States’ in less than 20 years, the great debate today is over whether China will integrate into the existing world order or seek to transform it.

Invoking the grand logic of the rise and fall of great powers, Jacques, a journalist, makes the case that China will dominate and reshape the global system. He argues that although China’s first steps toward global preeminence are economic, eventually its political and cultural influence will be even greater — and that, overall, “China’s impact on the world will be at least as great as that of the United States over the last century, probably far greater.”

Jacques also claims that Beijing appears to offer the world an alternative route to modernity — and therefore a different vision of world order. Having adopted the trappings of Western capitalism while embracing a more illiberal conception of social order, China is modernizing, not westernizing. Therefore, Jacques argues, its coming hegemony will reorient politics and society.

But the book is better at describing differences between the East and the West — their cities, customs, values — than alternative logics of global order. It does not explore in any depth what it will mean for China to become a global hegemon. Hegemony involves building a system of institutions that other states seek to join, overseeing an extensive system of alliances, and providing public goods. The United States’ liberal orientation has facilitated its leadership. It remains to be seen whether China can build a Pax Sinica without an open, rule-based world order.


၊အေမရိကန္ကိုေမ့ျပစ္လိုက္ပါ၊ဖိလီပိုင္ရဲ့ေရွ႕ေရးကတ႐ုပ္နဲ႕ပူးေပါင္းဖို႕ပါ


Author: Forget America, PH’s future bound with China

Published on Nov 21, 2012                   96,159 view
GUEST: Martin Jacques, Author of “When China Rules the World…”

 


၊၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံဆီကအမ်ားၾကီးသင္ယူစရာရွိတယ္

Martin Jacques: The West has a lot to learn from China

Published on Nov 9, 2012                   43,283 views

http://www.intelligencesquared.com/ev…

From the debate “Western liberal democracy would be wrong for China”, filmed at the Emmanuel Centre in London on 7th November 2012.

Event info:

People everywhere are better off living in liberal democracy: that has been the reigning assumption of the western world. But could it be we’ve got it wrong? If you were one of the world’s billions of poor peasants might you not be better off under a system dedicated to political stability and economic growth — one that has lifted 400 million out of poverty — rather than one preoccupied with human rights, the rule of law, and the chance to vote out unpopular rulers? Thanks to the Chinese model of government life expectancy in Shanghai is now higher than in New York.

So is China better off without democracy? Or is that just the age-old mantra of the tyrant?

 


Check Out China Remarkable Progress Leaving US Behind
Hedgehog

Published on Dec 30, 2017


 

၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကဦးေဆာင္တဲ့ခါမွာတမူထူးျခားမွာ

 

Kevin Rudd on China’s Rise and a New World Order-26 Oct 2017

Published on Oct 27, 2017                55,595 views

Kevin Rudd on China’s Rise and a New World Order-26 Oct 2017
La Trobe University
၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကဦးေဆာင္တဲ့ခါမွာတမူထူးျခားမွာ


Why China Will Be a Very Different Kind of Great Power”
zaobao.sg 早报
73,004 views


 

Watch How China is Developing So Fast! New Era of Technological Development And Innovation in China
Richard Aguilar

1,433 views  Published on Jan 25, 2018

 

 

Published on Dec 15, 2016
Part 2: https://youtu.be/anribnv8RXg
In China, no matter the living technologies, transportation facilities, various security systems, military facilities and many other kind of science and technologies are developing very fast, even possess their own innovative technologies and to be the first launched in the world!!! It’s really A miracle!!! If you are still hesitate to believe or not, don’t wait, come on!!!
Rmarks: If you enjoy this video, pls share to your friends or anyone in the world!!
CategoryUnbelievable High Tech in China Part 1
WOW Channel

70,319 view


၊၊ျမန္မာတိုင္းမ္း၊
၊,ေန႕စြဲ၂ /၂/၂၀၁၈၊

တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံတိုးတက္ေအာင္ျမင္လာျခင္းသည္အမ်ားအတြက္အက်ိဳးမ်ားစြာျပဴမယ္
၊ဆိုတဲ့၊မႏၲေလးကပါရကူဘြဲ့သင္တန္းသားေဇာ္ေဇာ္ေအာင္ရဲ့ေဆာင္းပါးမွေကာက္ႏုတ္တယ္

 

 

https://www.mmtimes.com/news/chinas-rise-holds-great-promise.html

China’s rise holds great promise

Zaw Zaw Aung 02 Feb 2018


Extracts

The rise in Asia began with Japan and South Korea and is continuing in Southeast Asia, but the real transformative event was when China joined this process of rapid industrialisation.

 


၊US ၊ႏိုင္ငံတက္လာႏွုန္းထက္တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကပိုအတက္ျမန္မယ္၊
၊အာရွတိုက္ကၾကီးစိုးဦးေဆာင္လိမ့္မယ္

 

Due to the size of China, this is starting to shift the whole axis of the global economy. The domination of Asia is almost inevitable and will occur much more quickly than the rise of the United States in the 20th century.

 


 

၂၀၅၀မွာ ၊အိႏၵိယကလဲ USကိုေက်ာ္တက္လိမ့္မယ္

It predicted that India could overtake the United States as the second largest economy by 2050 – based on GDP at purchasing power parities – and could overtake Japan as the third largest economy by 2030.

၊ US၊ကကာကြယ္ေရးပိုင္းကိုတိုးခ်ဲ႕ေနစဥ္မွာပင္၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကစီးပြါးေရးအပိုင္းကိုတိုးခ်ဲ႕တယ္၊
၊ဒီလိုစီးပြါးေရးတိုးခ်ဲ႕တာကေဒသခံအျပင္ကမ႓ာတဝွမ္းလုံးဆီသို႕လဲျဖစ္တယ္၊ေအာင္ျမင္မႈ
၊အက်ိဳးစီးပြါးကိုမွ်ယူေဝယူမယ္ျဖစ္လို႕အာရွတိုက္ကလဲအတူတကြလိုက္တက္ဖို႕ရွိတယ္၊

၊ဒီလိုေအာင္ျမင္လာျပီးမၾကာမီမွာ၊အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံေတြဟာေတာ္ေတာ့ကိုေနာက္က်
၊က်န္ရစ္ခဲ့မယ္၊၊စီးပြါးေရးေရာႏိုင္ငံေရးေရာ၊ဒီအာရွဘက္ျခမ္းမွာေခါင္းေဆာင္သစ္ေပၚထြက္
၊လာပါလိမ္႕မယ္၊

While the United States is expanding its military, China is extending the power of its economy throughout the region and around the world by offering a partnership that promises “the benefit of all”. Asia is now gaining the prospect of “greatness together” by supporting the Chinese initiative to become a world power. Shortly after China achieves this, the West will be far behind, not only economically but politically, as a new leader takes over in this part of the globe.

 



၊၂၁ရာစုႏွစ္အတြင္းေလာေလာဆယ္ဒီဆယ္ႏွစ္မွာဘဲတ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံနဲ႕အိႏၵိယႏိုင္ငံတို႕ကေရွ႕ေဆာင္
လိမ့္မယ္ျဖစ္ျပီးi၊အာရွႏိုင္ငံတိုင္းလိုလိုကအက်ိဳးခံစားႏိုင္ၾကမယ္၊အခြင့္အေရးေပၚလာရင္
၊ယူတတ္ဖို႕ဘဲလိုတယ္၊ 

 

The 21st century will be, one way or another, the century of Asia under the economic lead of China and India, which are the leading states of the world in this decade. Almost all the Asian states will benefit, if they are smart enough to take advantage of the great opportunity coming their way.

၊အာရွရာစုေခတ္မွာအေရွ႕တိုင္းတို႕ရဲ့စီးပြါးေရးအရွိန္အဝါကပိုမိုေအးခ်မ္းသာယာႂကြယ္ဝတဲ့
ကမ႓ာျဖစ္မယ္ အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံက၊တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံကိုအမွီလိုက္ဖို႕ၾကိဳးစားရေသာ္လည္းစီး
ပြါးေရးေရာ၊၊ႏိုင္ငံေရးအရပါမနဲ(နလံထူ)ရမွာပါ၊

၊အာရွႏိုင္ငံေတြရဲ့စည္းလုံးညီညြတ္မႈခိုင္မာေတာင့္တင္းမယ္ဆိုရင္ ၊ရာခ်ီႏွစ္မ်ားစြာမွာအေနာက္တိုင္း
၊ကလာျပီးမလႊမ္းမိုးႏိုင္ေတာ့ပါ၊

 

The Asian century and the East’s new economic power will create a better, richer, more peaceful world. The West, even though it is trying to catch up with the rapid growth of China, will have to try to survive economically and politically. If Asian states unite strongly to beat the West, there will not be a Western age again for many centuries.

(၊၊ေဇာ္ ေဇာ္ေအာင္ရဲ့ေဆာင္းပါးအနီးစပ္ဆုံးဘာသာျပန္တာပါ)
Zaw Zaw Aung is a PhD candidate in Mandalay. He can be contacted at zzamdy@gmail.com.


Anja Manuel: India and China, the New Superpowers

Ms. Manuel is Co-Founder and Partner along with former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, former National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley and former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, in RiceHadleyGates LLC, a strategic consulting firm. The firm assists CEOs and senior executives at major companies – many of them headquartered in California — to export, expand their businesses, and meet regulatory challenges in key emerging markets such as China, India, Latin America, and the Middle East.

Anja Manuel is also a Lecturer in the International Policy Studies Program at Stanford University where she designed and teaches a course on US Foreign Policy in Asia.

She is the author of This Brave New World: India, China and the United States, published by Simon and Schuster in 2016.

From 2005 to 2007, Anja Manuel served as Special Assistant to Under-Secretary for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns at the U.S. Department of State…..

She graduated cum laude from Harvard Law School, and holds a BA and MA degree with distinction from Stanford University.

 

Published on Jun 10, 2016
Anja Manuel, Co-founder and Partner, RiceHadleyGates LLC; Author, This Brave New World: India, China, and the United States; Twitter @AnjaManuel1

Lenny Mendonca, Director Emeritus,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bus to India Mideast Indohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqGy0Tk28Qc

 

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