ေနာ္ေဝရဲ့စီးပြါးေရးဟာႏိုင္ငံပိုင္နဲ႕

ပုဂ္ဂလိကပိုင္ႏွစ္မ်ိဳးစလုံး

ေရာေႏွာဒြန္တြဲေနတဲ့စံနစ္ ျဖစ္တာ၊

စက္မႈေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခတ္ က စတင္ျပီး တိုးတက္မႈျမန္ဆန္လာတာ၊

သယံဇာတေပါႂကြယ္တာေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္တာ၊

အဲဒီသယံဇာတေပါႂကြယ္တဲ့အနက္က

ေရနံရွာေဖြေရးနဲ႕ထုတ္လုပ္ေရး၊

ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္လုပ္ေရးနဲ႕

ေရသတ္တဝါလုပ္ငန္း (ပင္လယ္ငါးဖမ္းလုပ္ငန္း)

တို႕ပါဝင္တာ၊

အျခားဥေရာပႏိုင္ငံနဲ႕ႏိႈင္းရင္ ေနာ္ေဝရဲ့လူေနမႈအဆင့္အတန္းဟာ အလြန္ၾကီးျမင့္တာ၊

ခိုင္လုံ ဘက္စုံ က်နတဲ့ လူမႈဖူလုံေရးစံနစ္လဲရွိတာ၊

The economy of Norway is a developed mixed economy with heavy state-ownership in strategic areas of the economy. Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. Shipping has long been a support of Norway’s export sector, but much of Norway’s economic growth has been fueled by an abundance of natural resources, including petroleum exploration and production, hydroelectric power, and fisheries. Agriculture and traditional heavy manufacturing have suffered relative decline compared to services and oil-related industries, and the public sector is among the largest in the world as a percentage of the overall gross domestic product. The country has a very high standard of living compared with other European countries, and a strongly integrated welfare system.

Economy of Norway – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Norway

 

 

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စက္မႈေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခတ္ မတိုင္မီတုန္းကဆိုရင္

လယ္ယာကိုင္းကြၽန္း သစ္ေတာ နဲ႕ငါးဖမ္း လုပ္ငန္း တို႕ကိုဘဲ အေျခခံရတာ၊

ေနာ္ေဝျပည္သူေတြက ပစ္စည္းအေတာ္ရွားပါးစြာနဲ႕ဆင္းဆင္းရဲရဲေနရတာ၊

သို႕ေသာ္ အစာေရစာငတ္မြတ္ေခါင္းပါးတာက နဲ တာပါ၊

၁၉ ရာစုက်ေတာ့(လူဦးေရမ်ားလာလို႕) လယ္ယာေျမေတြ မေလာက္မင ျဖစ္တာ၊

ေျမာက္အေမရိကာ (ကေနဒါ နဲ႕ ယူအက္စ္) သို႕ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕ဘို႕

တြန္းေပးတဲ့အေၾကာင္းတရပ္ပင္ျဖစ္တာ၊

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Pre-industrial revolution

Prior to the industrial revolution, Norway’s economy was largely based on agriculture, timber, and fishing. Norwegians typically lived under conditions of considerable scarcity, though famine was rare. Except for certain fertile areas in Hedemarken and Østfold, crops were limited to hardy grains, such as oats, rye, and barley; and livestock to sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, and some poultry; in places this was complemented with hunting. In areas of Central and Northern Norway, the Sami subsisted on the nomadic herding of reindeer. Fishing all around the coast was dangerous work, though fish such as herring, cod, halibut, and other cold-water species were found in abundance. The introduction of the potato to Norway (in the 18th century) provided considerable relief for Norwegians.

All around the coast, the harvesting of fish (including cod, herring, halibut, and other cold water species) was an important supplement to farming and was in many areas in the north and west the primary household subsistence. Fishing was typically supplemented with crop-growing and the raising of livestock on small farms.

The economic conditions in Norway did not lend themselves to the formation of feudal system, though several kings did reward land to loyal subjects who became knights. Self-owning farmers were—and continue to be—the main unit of work in Norwegian agriculture, but leading up to the 19th century farmers ran out of land available for farming. Many agricultural families were reduced to poverty as tenant farmers, and served as the impetus for emigration to North America.

Industrial revolution 

Capital formation 1865 – 2003 Source: Statistics Norway

Aside from mining in Kongsberg, Røros and Løkken, industrialization came with the first textile mills that were built in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. But the first large industrial enterprises came into formation when entrepreneurs politics, leading to the founding of banks to serve those needs.

Industries also offered employment for a large number of individuals who were displaced from the agricultural sector. As wages from industry exceeded those from agriculture, the shift started a long-term trend of reduction in cultivated land and rural population patterns. The working class became a distinct phenomenon in Norway, with its own neighborhoods, culture, and politics.

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Social democratic reforms and state ownership 

Public vs. private consumption Source: Statistics Norway

The roots of the socialist movement in Norway were based on dangerous working conditions, exploitative labor relations policies, and the demand for collective bargaining. As socialism became part of the mainstream labor movement, it also became part of the mainstream political discourse.

The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector (Statoil), hydroelectric energy production (Statkraft), aluminum production (Norsk Hydro), the largest Norwegian bank (DNB) and telecommunication provider (Telenor). The government controls 31.6% of publicly-listed companies. When non-listed companies are included the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership)…

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၁၉၆၆ ကစတင္ျပီး ေရနံရွာတာက ၁၉၆၉ က်မွေတြ႕သြားတာ၊

 Ocean Viking  (ေရနံရွာသင္းေဘာ) က ၁၉၆၉  ဩဂုတ္ ၂၁   မွာ ေရနံရွာေတြ႕တာ၊  

ေရနံနဲ႕ဓာတ္ေငြ႕တြင္း (ကြင္းျပင္)ေတြက ေတာ္ေတာ္ ၾကီးတာ၊

၁၉၈၀ မွာ ပဌမေရနံတြင္းျဖစ္တဲ့ Ekofisk  ေရနံတြင္း က ၄၂၇၄၄၂ ပီပါး(စည္ပိုင္း)လုံးေရ ထုတ္ယူႏိုင္ခဲ့တာ၊

ဒါနဲ႕ဘဲ ေရနံနဲ႕ဓာတ္ေငြ႕တြင္းေတြတေျဖးေျဖးကုန္ခန္းလာတာကေန ေနာက္ပိုင္းက်မွ ေရနံတြင္းသစ္ေတြကို ထပ္ေတြ႕လာေတာ့တာ၊

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Petroleum and post-industrialism

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Oil-exporting country

Main article: Energy in Norway 

Oil production, Norwegian sector; Source: Statistics Norway

In May 1963, Norway asserted sovereign rights over natural resources in its sector of the North Sea. Exploration started on 19 July 1966, when Ocean Traveler drilled its first well. Initial exploration was fruitless, until Ocean Viking found oil on 21 August 1969. By the end of 1969, it was clear that there were large oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. The first oil field was Ekofisk, produced 427,442 barrels (67,957.8 m3) of crude in 1980. Since then, large natural gas reserves have also been discovered.

Against the backdrop of the Norwegian referendum to not join the European Union, the Norwegian Ministry of Industry, headed by Ola Skjåk Bræk moved quickly to establish a national energy policy. Norway decided to stay out of OPEC, keep its own energy prices in line with world markets, and spend the revenue – known as the “currency gift” – wisely. The Norwegian government established its own oil company, Statoil, and awarded drilling and production rights to Norsk Hydro and the newly formed Saga Petroleum.

The North Sea turned out to present many technological challenges for production and exploration, and Norwegian companies invested in building capabilities to meet these challenges. A number of engineering and construction companies emerged from the remnants of the largely lost shipbuilding industry, creating centers of competence in Stavanger and the western suburbs of Oslo. Stavanger also became the land-based staging area for the offshore drilling industry. Presently North Sea is past its peak oil production. New oil and gas fields have been found and developed in the large Norwegian areas of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea, including Snøhvit….

=================

 CIA – The World Factbook

 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/no.html

Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway’s economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country’s extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.



သင္သိပါသလားဗ်ိဳ႕?


အေမရိကားေန ေနာ္ေဝႏြယ္ဘြား အေမရိကန္ ၄.၆သန္း တို႕ဟာ 

ပင္ရင္းေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံေနေနာ္ေဝျပည္သူဦးေရ ၅.၀ သန္း နဲ႕မတိမ္းမျငိမ္းေလာက္ေတာင္ရွိတာ၊

 

နံမယ္ေက်ာ္ ႐ုပ္ရွင္မင္းသမီးေခ်ာ Marilyn Monroe မယ္ ရီလင္း မြန္ယိုးဟာ ေနာ္ေဝအႏြယ္ျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေၾကာင္း ထင္ေၾကးေပးၾကတာ၊

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian-Americans

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Norway

Marilyn Monroe[1][2] (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962)[3] was an American actress, model, and singer, who became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s and early 1960s.[4]

John Ashcroft  ကMissouri ျပည္နယ္ Governor  (ဘုရင္ခံအဆင့္လိုဘဲ)၊ Missouri  က     ျပည္သူ႕လႊတ္ေတာ္အမတ္၊ယူအက္စ္ေအ တရားေရးဝန္ၾကီးျဖစ္ခဲ့တာ၊

John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is a United States politician who served as the 79th United States Attorney General, from 2001 until 2005, appointed by President George W. Bush. Ashcroft previously served as the 50th Governor of Missouri (1985–1993) and a U.S. Senator from Missouri (1995–2001).

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Electricity sector in Norway – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_Norway

လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားသုံးစြဲမႈ

၂၀၀၇ မွာလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ၁၃၇ Twh  ထုတ္လုပ္တာ၊ ဒီအနက္ ၁၃၅ Twh က ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စက္ရုံမ်ားမွ ျဖစ္တာ၊ 

၁၅၃၆ Gwh က သဘာဝ ေရပူစမ္းသုံး လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္စက္ရုံစခန္းမွျဖစ္ျပီး၊ 

၈၉၂ Gwh  က ေလထုအင္အားသုံးလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္လုပ္ေရးစက္ရုံမ်ားမွျဖစ္တာ၊

ေနာ္ေဝသုံးတာက ၁၁၅ Twh ျဖစ္တာ၊

၂၀၀၄-၂၀၀၉ အတြင္းမွာ ေနာ္ေဝျပည္သူတဦးခ်င္း လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား သုံးတာက ႏွစ္စဥ္ ဖ်မ္မွ်အားျဖင့္ ၂၆-၂၇ Mwh ရွိတာ၊

၂၀၀၈ မွာ ဥေရာပ EU   ရဲ့တဦးခ်င္း လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား သုံးတာက ဖ်မ္းမွ်အားျဖင့္ ၇.၄ Mwh ျဖစ္လို႕  ၃ ဆေက်ာ္ေတာင္ရွိတာ၊

Consumption

Of the total production in 2007 of 137 TWh, 135 TWh was from hydroelectric plants, 1 536 GWh was from thermal power, and 892 GWh was wind generated.[1] In same year, the total consumption was 115 TWh.[2]

The annual electricity consumption was about 26-27 MWh per inhabitant during 2004-2009 when the European union (EU15) average in 2008 was 7.4 MWh. Norway’s consumption of electricity was over three times higher per person compared to the EU 15 average in 2008. The domestic electricity supply promotes use of electricity. [3]…

လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ပို႕ေဆာင္မႈ

အိမ္နီးခ်င္း ႏိုင္ငံSweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands (Holland) တို႕နဲ႕တိုက္႐ိုက္ ဓာတ္ၾကိဳးလိုင္းေတြ ခ်ိတ္ဆက္ သြယ္သန္း ထားတာ၊

ဝယ္အား နဲ႕ ေစ်းႏွုန္းေျပာင္းလဲမႈကိုလိုက္ျပီးေျပာင္းႏိုင္စြမ္းရွိတာ၊

နံနက္ပိုင္း ေစ်းေကာင္းခ်ိန္မွာဓာတ္အားေတြေရာင္းခ်ပို႕ေဆာင္ျပီး၊ 

ညပိုင္းေစ်းက်ခ်ိန္မွာဓာတ္အားေတြကိုျပန္လဲဝယ္ယူတင္သြင္းတာ၊

Transmission

Norway has an open electric market, integrated with the other Nordic countries. Export and import is routine over the direct power links to Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The market is handled by NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and Nord Pool Spot. Many of the hydroelectric plants in Norway are easily adjustable and can adapt well to variations in demand, and hence in price. On a normal day, when price is low during nighttime, Norway normally imports power, and exports during daytime when the price is higher.

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ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္လုပ္မႈ


ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္စက္ရုံေတြကိုတည္ေဆာက္တာ နဲ႕

လည္ပတ္ေအာင္ကြပ္ကဲ တဲ့ေနရာမွာေနာ္ေဝကအထူးကြၽမ္းက်င္ေၾကာင္း

ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားက ယူဆတာ၊


၂၀၀၈ မွာ ေနာ္ေဝက ထုတ္တဲ့လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား 141 Twh အနက္ 98.5% က ေရအားမွျဖစ္ျပီး၊

ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ထုတ္လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား စုစုေပါင္း  ရဲ့ 4.3% ျဖစ္တာ၊


IEA အရ၊ China, Canada, Brazil, US, Russia ႏိုင္ငံတို႕ျပီးရင္ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၆ က ေနရာယူတာ


Hydroelectricity

See also: Hydroelectricity in Norway

Norway is considered by many[who?] to have particular expertise in the area of building and operation of hydroelectric power plants.

Hydroelectricity was 98.5 % of electricity generation in 2008. 141 TWh hydropower in 2008 was 4.3 % of the world total. The installed capacity of hydropower was 29 GW in 2007.[6]

According to IEA Norway was the 6th in the hydroelectricity power in the world in 2008 after China, Canada, Brazil, United States and Russia.[6]

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