nordam11

 အထက္ပါပုံဟာယခင္ကTyskedammne ေရကာတာေဟာင္းျဖစ္ျပီး

ယခုက်ေတာ့ျမင္တဲ့အတိုင္းပ်က္စီးယိုယြင္းေနတာပါ၊

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စကားမစပ္က်ေနာ့ေပါက္ေဖာ္ၾကီးဦး”အာေခ်ာင္တီး”က  

ဒီပုံကိုျမင္သြားတာနဲ႕ခ်က္ခ်င္းဘဲအမူအရာေျပာင္းသြားခဲ့တာ၊

ေရႊတုံးတတုံးေကာက္ရသလိုလို၊ထီေပါက္သြားသလိုလို၊

သူကမေနာပီတိဂြမ္းဆီထိတဲ့အလား၊ပီတိအစုံစုံေဝျဖာလႊမ္းမိုးကာ

 “ဝဇ္ဇာဓိုရ္”လိုခုန္ေပါက္ခုန္ေပါက္နဲ႕ဟိုယိုင္ဒီယိုင္ညိမ္း”က”ေနေတာ့ရာ၊

မၾကာခင္မွာဘဲသူကငယ္သံပါေအာင္၊တခ်က္တခ်က္

အားရပါးရေအာ္ဟစ္ေႂကြးေက်ာ္လိုက္တာက

“ေအာင္ျပီ၊ငါဒို႕ေအာင္ျပီ၊”

“အေရးေတာ္ပံုေအာင္ရမယ္”

ဆိုတာ၊

မေရွးမေနာင္းခင္မွာဘဲသူကတခ်က္ထဲတအားခုန္ေပါက္လိုက္တာနဲ႕၊

nytwin

 

 New Yorkနယူးေယာက္သားပီပီNew Yorkနယူးေယာက္ကအသစ္တဖန္ျပန္လည္

တည္ေဆာက္လိုက္တဲ့TwinTowersအမႊာပူးမိုးေမွ်ာ္တိုက္ေခါင္မိုးေပၚကို

တခ်ီထဲနဲ႕ေရာက္ေတာ့တာ၊

cat

 

Supermanလိုအေပၚကိုေရာက္ေတာ့လဲ၊

တဖ်စ္ေတာက္ေတာက္ေအာ္ဟစ္ေႂကြးေက်ာ္ေနျပန္တာက

“ဟဲ့ငမိုက္သားေၾကးမုံဂ်ီးရာ၊နင္ဘာေျပာအုံးမလဲ၊”

“ငါအေစာၾကီးကေျပာေျပာေနသားဘဲ”

“ငလ်င္၊ငလ်င္ဆိုတာေလ”

 “နင္မွတ္မိေသးရဲ့လား”

“မင္းက”ငေၾကာင္ၾကီး”ေၾကာင္ေတာင္ေတာင္မို႕လို႕မယုံတာ၊”

“ၾကည့္စမ္းကြာငါ့လူ၊ငလ်င္ေၾကာင့္ေရကာတာၾကီး

အစိတ္စိတ္အမႊာမႊာျဖစ္ရျပီမဟုတ္လားကြာ”

“ငါ့ကိုအံတုလို႕ရမလားကြာ၊ဟဲဟဲ၊ဟဲဟဲ”

“နင္သိဘို႕ရာ၊ေၾကာင္ပုဇြန္စားကြၽတ္ကြၽတ္ဝါးလို႕ဘဲမွတ္၊ဟဲဟဲ၊ဟဲဟဲ”

ဆိုျပီးအသစ္ခ်ပ္ခ်ဳပ္အမႊာမိုးေမွ်ာ္တိုက္ေခါင္မိုး

ကေနႂကြားဝါက်ိန္းေမာင္းေႂကြးေက်ာ္ေနျပန္တာ၊

—–

ဒါနဲ႕လူေတြကဝိုင္းလာၾကေတာ့နယူးေယာက္ပုလိပ္ေတြက

အေဆြေတာ္ဦး”အာေခ်ာင္တီး”ကိုေအာက္ကေန

အသံခ်ဲ႕စက္နဲ႕ေအာ္ျပီးရွင္းျပရတာ၊

“ဟဲ့ငတုံး၊ဟဲ့ငေၾကာင္၊ဒီရြာမွာလာျပီး႐ူးသလိုလို”အ”သလိုလို

နံမယ္နဲ႕လိုက္ေအာင္၊အူေၾကာင္ေၾကာင္လာမလုပ္နဲ႕”

“ဒီရြာမွာအမွားအမွန္ကိုခြဲျခားစိတ္ျဖာတတ္တဲ့ရြာသားေတြရွိတယ္”

“အဲဒီပံုကေရကာတာဟာ ငလ်င္ေၾကာင့္ျပိဳက်ပ်က္စီးတာမွမဟုတ္တာ၊

ဒုတိယကမ္ဘာစစ္ျဖစ္တုန္းကဂ်ာမန္စစ္တပ္ကေနာ္ေဝမွာ

တည္ေဆာက္ခဲ့တဲ့ေရကာတာကိုအင္ဂလိပ္ေလယာဥ္ေတြက

ဗုံးၾကဲခဲ့တာေၾကာင့္ပါ၊

—–

အဲဒီလိုနဲ႕ဆင္းခိုင္းေတာ့မွသူက”စ်ာန္ေလွ်ာ”လာကာအျမင္မွန္ရေတာ့တာ၊

မွတ္ခ်က္၊ဦး”အာေခ်ာင္တီးရဲ့”စိုးရိမ္ပူပန္မႈသက္သာေအာင္ေျပာရမယ္ဆိုရင္

ငလ်င္ေၾကာင့္ေနာ္ေဝကေရကာတာၾကီးတခုခုပ်က္စီးခဲ့လို႕လဲ

လူေတြကအၾကီးအက်ယ္ေသေၾကပ်က္စီးရတာဆိုလို႕ႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ

(ရာခ်ီႏွစ္ပရိေစဒ)ကထဲကမရွိခဲ့ပါေၾကာင္း၊

ေနာ္ေဝမွာဒီလိုမ်ိဳးကိစ္စလုံးဝ မ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ပါေၾကာင္း၊

——

(ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆိုတာသိဘို႕ေအာက္နားထိဆက္လက္ဘတ္ေပးပါ)

Tyskedammen (The German Dam) | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/kingcod/5869923387/

Tyskedammen (The German Dam)

This pool was halfway up Gamlemsvetan, a mountain made up of glacial moraine, on the west coast of Norway. The remains of the dam, presumably built by the Germans during the occupation in World war two (going by the name and that the area was the site for a German base during the war), consists of a single plank seen in the middle of the stream and a concrete wall on the right of the stream (not in the picture).

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အရင္ကတင္ခဲ့တဲ့ေနာ္ေဝေရကာတာlinkလင့္ခအခ်ိဳ႕

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံပိုင္Statkraft ေရကာတာေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးအဖြဲ႕ၾကီး -XXIV | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝက Vieddekke ေရကာတာ အဖြဲ႕ၾကီး – အဆက္- XXIII | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XXI | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XX | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XIX | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝက Vieddekke ဆိုတဲ့ေရကာတာ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးအဖြဲ႕ၾကီး – XVIII | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XVII | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XVI | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာမ်ား – Norway Dams XVI | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားထုတ္ Statkraft “စတတ္ကရပ္ အဖြဲ႕” နဲ႕ေရကာတာမ်ား – XV | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေကာက္ႏွုတ္ခ်က္

“အေပၚက ၂၀၁၁ ဇယား အရ  ေနာ္ေဝ က အၾကီးစား ေရကာတာ ၁၄၂ လုံး အငယ္စား၂၈ လုံးရွိတာ၊”

ႏွစ္တရာေက်ာ္ တဲ့ေနာ္ေဝ က ဖိုး “တိုင္ဆို (၁)” Norway’s Tysso I – XIV ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ေကာက္ႏွုတ္ခ်က္

“Foreign investment was pivotal for hydropower development in Tyssedal. The massive foreign purchase of the Tysso watercourse (most of the funding for the foundation of power company Tyssefaldene came from abroad) led to the so-called “Panic Act” of 1906, which was the basis for the Norwegian concession laws.”

“ႏိုင္ငံျခားမွ ရင္းႏွီးေငြေတြကို အလုံးအရင္းနဲ႕ မ်ားမ်ားစာစား ထဲ့ဝင္လာၾကတာကိုေၾကာက္လန္႕ျပီး၊

၁၉၀၆ မွာ ေနာ္ေဝ က ဥပေဒေတြထုတ္ျပန္လာခဲ့တာ၊

 ေျမေတြဝယ္တာတို႕၊ေရနဲ႕ ေရအားပိုင္ဆိုင္ခြင့္ ဝယ္ယူသုံးစြဲတာ၊အေျပာင္းအလဲလုပ္တာ တို႕ကို

ခြင့္ျပဳမိန္႕ရမွ ဆိုျပီးျပဌာန္းလာခဲ့တာ၊

ၾကိဳတင္ပညတ္ခ်က္အျဖစ္ သမ႐ိုးက်ထားေလ့ရွိတာကေတာ့ ေနာင္အႏွစ္ ၆၀ မွ ၈၀ ထိ ဆိုရင္

 ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံပိုင္သြားဘို႕ပါဘဲ”

“These laws state that foreigners cannot purchase land or water rights without a concession. A typical prerequisite was that ownership would be turned over to the

Norwegian state after 60 to 80 years.”

ႏွစ္တရာေက်ာ္ တဲ့ေနာ္ေဝ က ဖိုး “တိုင္ဆို (၁)” Norway’s Tysso I – XIII | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

ႏွစ္ ၁၂၀ ေက်ာ္ျပီး ေနာက္ Theisendammen ေရကာတာ ဝန္းက်င္ရဲ့ ႐ႈခင္း – XII | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

၁၈၈၈ က Theisendammen ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးအလုပ္သမား တူေပ်ာ္ေပ်ာ္ – Norway XI | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

Workers building the Dam at Theisendammen (1888)

theis1theis3

ေကာက္ႏွုတ္ခ်က္

“ဟိုအခ်ိန္က စက္ကရိယာပစ္စည္း ခ်ိဳ႕တဲ့တာ ကို မညည္းမညဴရဘဲ၊

ရွိတာေလး သံတူၾကီးေတြကိုင္ေဆာင္ကာ ေက်ာက္တုံးၾကီးေတြကို

ပင္ပန္းၾကီးစြာ ထုခြဲခဲ့ၾကတာကိုျမင္ေယာင္မိတာ၊

 ေရကာတာ တခုျဖစ္ေျမာက္လာေအာင္ ဝါယာမ စိုက္ထုတ္ျပီး

ဇြဲနဘဲနဲ႕လုပ္ႏိုင္ခဲ့တာ ကို ခ်ီးက်ဴးတာပါ”

Norway ေရကာတာ ကေနေဖ်ာ္ေျဖသီဆိုၾကတဲ့ ေတးဂီတအဖြဲ႕ နဲ႕အဆိုေက်ာ္ေတြ – V | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

Norway ေရာက္ အေပ်ာ္ခရီးမွတ္တမ္းဗီဒီယိုေတြမွ ႐ႈခင္း႐ိုက္ခ်က္ေတြ – V | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

Norway သို႕ အေပ်ာ္ထမ္းခရီး လိုက္သြားရေအာင္ IV – Vamma Flom, Tafjord, Geiranger ႐ႈခင္းေတြ | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

Norway သို႕ အေပ်ာ္ထမ္းခရီး လိုက္သြားရေအာင္ III – Solbergfoss ႐ႈခင္းေတြ | The Mandalay Gazette-Myanmar/Burma News Media Forum Network

nordam1

 

Alta dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/statkraft/4077414768/

Alta dam ေရကာတာ

 

Alta dam, Finnmark, Norway

Alta power plant is a hydropower plant in Finnmark County. Alta power plant has two generators of 100 MW and 50 MW each. The power plant lies 40 kilometres from the mouth of the Altaelva river. Over the course of its 170 kilometre to the mouth the river gains water from a major part of the Finnmarksvidda mountain plateau. The lower 40 kilometres of the river has a salmon population. The power plant exploits an elevation difference of 185 metres from the 18 kilometre long Virdnejavri reservoir. From the 110 metre high dam to the power station outlet a two-kilometre stretch of the river runs dry.

nordam5

Alta dam #1 | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.statkraft.com/Images/Hydropower%2009%20ENG_tcm9-4587.pdf

————

nordam6

Frysja | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/brennersted/2404639701/

Frysja ေရကာတာ

 

The dam at Frysja in Oslo, a part of Akerselva.

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ဒီVoringfossen ေရတံခြန္ကိုလာၾကည့္ၾကတဲ့ဧည့္ပရိသတ္ေတြဟာေနာ္ေဝမွာ

ဆိုရင္အမ်ားဆုံးျဖစ္ကာ၊

 ၎ေရတံခြန္က ၁၈၃ မီတာ (ေပ ၆၀၀) (၆၀ထပ္တိုက္ေလာက္)ျမင့္ျပီး၊

Osloနဲ႕Bergen ျမိဳ႕တို႕အၾကားမွာရွိတာပါ၊

nordam7

Voringfossen on Vimeo

http://vimeo.com/19927859

nordam7a

Vøringfossen | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/jensvins/4912170657/in/photostream

norvor

Slideshowဆလိုဒ္႐ိႈးပါ

Vøringsfossen

http://www.flickr.com/photos/markussolberg/sets/72157605617722873/show/

 

ေရတံခြန္ဆီကိုမေရာက္ခင္Sysendalen ေတာင္ၾကားအရပ္မွာ

ေရအားကေနလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္တဲ့စက္ရုံတရုံရွိျပီး၊

၎စက္႐ံုကျမစ္ေရစီးဆင္းႏွုန္းကိုထိန္းေပးတာ၊

ေႏြရာသီက်ရင္သာမန္ေရစီးႏွုန္းကိုတိုးေပးတာက

တစက္ကန္႕ကို၁၂ ကုဗမီတာႏွုန္းအထိျဖစ္ျပီး၊ဒီလိုတိုးေပးတာဟာ

ဧည့္ခရီးသယ္ၾကိဳစီးပြါးေရးလုပ္ငန္းကိုအေတာ္က်ိဳးေပးဘို႕လဲ

ပါတာပါ၊

 

Vøringfossen is the most visited waterfall in Norway. The falls are 183 m (about 600 ft.) high. The falls are located in Eidfjord not far from Highway 7, which connects Oslo with Bergen.

Bjoreia, the small river that flows into Vøringfossen, has a hydroelectric dam in the Sysendalen valley above the falls, reducing the flow of water. In summer, the flow is increased to 12 m3/s, above its natural rate, not least to benefit the tourist trade.

——————–

The Vatnedalen dams in Bykle

nordam9nordam9a

 

 

အထက္ပါVatnedalenက ေရကာတာႏွစ္လုံးစလုံးဟာ

ေျမာက္ပိုင္းဥေရာပတိုက္မွာရွိၾကတဲ့

အျမင့္ဆုံးေရကာတာဆည္စာရင္းဝင္ေတြပါ၊

The Vatnedalen dams in Bykle – Norway official travel guide – visitnorway.com

http://www.visitnorway.com/en/Product/?pid=99157

The two dams in Vatnedalen are among the highest reservoirs in Northern Europe. They are situated to the west of Berdalsbru, approximately 15 kilometres south of Hovden. You may drive your car all the way up to the dams, where you will find a large parking area and information board. Free admission. Closed when snow.

nordam10

Kjosnesfjorden asphalt core dams – Norway – Projects – Asphalt core Dams

http://www.asphaltcoredams.com/projects/asphalt-core-dams-projects/article57275.ece

 Kjosnesfjordenေရအျမင့္ေတြကို (၉၈၅)ေပ မွ (၁၀၀၁) ေပအထိဘဲ

ထားရမယ္လို႕ဥပေဒနဲ႕ျပဌာန္းထားတာပါ၊

Project description

In connexion with construction of Kjosnesfjorden hydro power station the reservoir at Trollavatn shall be regulated from existing level 985 to 1001.4 m.

Kjosnesfjordenေရကာတာႏွစ္လုံးစလုံးဟာႏိုင္လြန္ကတ္တရာအူတိုင္နဲ႕ပါ၊  

 

ကမ္ဘာအႏွံ႕မွာရွိၾကတဲ့ႏိုင္လြန္ကတ္တရာအူတိုင္ပါေရကာတာလုံးေရဟာခုဆိုရင္(၈၀) ေက်ာ္ေနပါျပီ၊

(၂၀၀၈ကသတင္း)

ေကာင္းေကာင္းမြန္မြန္လဲလည္ပတ္ေနၾကတာပါ၊ 

This results in the construction of two small dams, both rockfill dams with central asphalt core. At present, more than 80 such dams have been built world-wide, and the performance of all these dams has been very good.

As both dams are fairly low, 25 and 20 m, respectively, the asphalt core is only 40 cm wide and the connection to the good rock base is much simplified.

The asphalt will be produced at a modern asphalt plant at Forde city, approximately 70 km from the dams and transported to site in insulated tippers. The other dam zones are produced from tunnelling material and quarry on site.

Dimensions

Main dam

Saddle dam

Maximum dam height:

25 m

20 m

Length of dam crest:

360 m

110 m

Level at top:

1004.6 m

1004.0 m

Crown width:

5.0 m

5.0 m

Up- and downstream slope:

1: 1.5

1: 1.5

ႏိုင္လြန္ကတ္တရာအူတိုင္သြင္းတာကို ၂၀၀၈  ေမလကုန္ကစျပီးေအာက္တိုဘာလမွာျပီးေျမာက္တာပါ

The asphalt core works begun in late May 2008 and was completed October 2008.

 

nordam2

International Water Power and Dam Construction

 ပံုေတြအရ ေရအဟုန္ကအေတာ္ကိုျပင္းတာ 

Dam Engineering

http://www.waterpowermagazine.com/hybrid.asp?typeCode=30&pubCode=2

nordam3

# | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nordicaperture/6141018508/in/photostream/

 

nordam4

 # | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nordicaperture/6140464585/in/photostream/

norfoss

Fossekleiva ေရတံခြန္

Waterfall at Fossekleiva dam

  Fossekleiva | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

————

 norogonorogo2

http://www.flickr.com/photos/ingepettersen/2909423305/

RogolandDam ေရကာတာကိုျဖတ္ေလွ်ာက္ရင္း

႐ႈခင္းကိုခံစားလိုက္တာပါ

Crossing the dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/larskflem/337546209/in/photostream/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/larskflem/337546159/in/photostream/

Tinfos Dam ေရကာတာ

   

မိုးၾကီးေရၾကီးလာလို႕ေရေတြကိုလႊတ္ရျပီးလႊတ္တဲ့ေရေတြက

အုဋ္ခဲေက်ာက္ေဆာင္းေတြကိုဒလၾကမ္းတိုက္ခိုက္

ထုေထာင္းေနၾကတာဟာမိုးထစ္ခ်ဳံးသံလို

က်ယ္ေလာင္ဆူညံလို႕ဘဲ

Torrential rain and 5-year floods resulted in opening the dam. The river is at 20 meters, the flow is at the maximum allowed (250,000 liters per second) and the lake is rising 3 cm every hour. The ground is thundering from the water pounding its way between the rocks.

tinfos

Tinfos Dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/saronann/5063108603/

tinfos2

Tinfos Dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/saronann/5063134891/

in/photostream/

tinfos3

 

 

ျမစ္ေရစီးဆင္းေနတာကိုဘုရားေက်ာင္းကေနျမင္ရတာပါ

From the Church | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

 http://www.flickr.com/photos/saronann/5034177429/in/photostream/

norge

brin

Bringedal Dam ေရကာတာ

The Dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/empetre/3667693125/

 norock

Rock ေရကာတာ

Rock dam | Flickr – Photo Sharing!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/ssmt/1467902778/

norhyp1norhyp3norhp2

 

ငါးေတြဆန္တက္ကူးတက္ႏိုင္ဘို႕”ေလွခါးထစ္”ေတြ

Hydro-Electric Power Projects in Norway video from Answers.com Videos

http://video.answers.com/hydro-electric-power-projects-in-norway-495320551

norhypnorhyp2

 

 ေရခ်ိဳနဲ႕ဆားငန္ေရတို႕မွလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္တာ

Hydro Powered Electric in Norway

http://video.answers.com/hydro-powered-electric-in-norway-516997949

Norwegians consume more energy per capita than any other country on earth, about ten times the world average. Power is cheap thanks to numerous hydro-electri…

 norcln1norcln2

 

 

 ေနာ္ေဝျပည္သူေတြက သင္းေဘာေတြနဲ႕ကူးလူးသြားလာေနရလို႕

သင္းေဘာအင္ဂ်င္စက္ေခါင္းၾကီးကထြက္တဲ့ဓာတ္ဆီအေငြ႕ေတြဟာ

သဘာဝဝန္းက်င္ကိုေတာ္ေတာ္ညစ္ညမ္းေစတာ၊

သဘာဝဝန္းက်င္သန္႕စင္ေစဘို႕Rolls Royce စက္ေခါင္းနဲ႕ေျပာင္းသုံးျပီး

ဓာတ္ေငြ႕ေတြကိုထိန္းသိမ္းေျဖရွင္းလိုက္တာပါ

Clean Marine Power in Norway

http://video.answers.com/clean-marine-power-in-norway-517351023

An investor documentary that shows how Rolls Royce is helping Norway to reduce pollution from ferries.

 nordam13

Hydropower In Norway

http://www.renewablepowernews.com/archives/1409

 ေနာ္ေဝရဲ့ေရအားကေနလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားထုတ္လုပ္တာက

 ကမ္ဘာ့စြမ္းအားထုတ္လုပ္မႈရဲ့၁၉% ျဖစ္ျပီး၊

ေနာ္ေဝျပည္သူတို႕သုံးတဲ့စြမ္းအားအနက္ 

၉၉%(အားလုံးလိုလို)ဟာေရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားေတြပါ

Hydropower adds up to nearly 19 percent of the world’s production of power. In Norway it represents approximately 99 percent of the total electric power produced. Norway is significant producer of hydropower, as well as in the international context. The amount of power produced in Norway is the highest in Europe, with a sum of 120 TWh per annum. Sweden and France follow each one with about 65 TWh on a yearly basis. Around 86 percent of electricity that is generated from renewable around the world nowadays originates from hydropower. The expertise that Norway has in hydropower and its varied competence fields is globally very powerful. This capability, which is regular fro every type of hydropower plants, touches domains such as hydrology, construction, environment, civil engineering in addition to machines such as power electronics.

Status

Hydropower is essential for Norway, and the activities in progress relates mostly to the restoration and improvement of existing plants, on top of the construction of hydropower of small scales ( less than 10MW). Furthermore there is the day-to-day operation, maintenance and licensing. In the days to come, hydropower will progressively become more important to stabilize the production of power from a regime which comprises of a rising production from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy.

There is great potential to construct new hydropower plants worldwide. It is calculated that hardly 25 – 30 percent of all installations that are economically feasible are exploited up to now. With a rising significance given to climate subject matters in relation to the production of energy, hydropower will consist of the solution, since hydropower does not add much to the emission of greenhouse gases.

 

 

 

 

အစိုးရပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာအဖြဲ႕အသီးသီးတို႕ကေရကာတာေတြကို

စီမံကြပ္ကဲေနၾကတာ

Supervision of dams

Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate

http://www.nve.no/en/Safety-and-contingency/Supervision-of-dams/

The practice of public control and supervision of dams in Norway started in 1909 with the foundation of the Control Department in the former Norwegian Water Administration, which was succeeded by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) in 1920.

NVE, which is now a directorate under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, is still the governmental authority on dam safety in Norway. Today the function of the former Control Department is taken care of by the the Licensing and Supervision Department, Section for Dam Safety in NVE. The main activities of the Section for Dam Safety are related to supervision of dams and appurtenant structures, including approval of plans for construction and rehabilitation, and administration of the legal framework for dam safety, including development of new technical guidelines.

The main goal of the public supervision is to ensure a uniform high level of safety on Norwegian dams and appurtenant structures, and thereby ensure that these structures are not posing a threat to life, property or the environment. NVE give the highest priority to the dams in the highest consequence classes, i.e. consequence class 3 and 2. The number of dams subject to public supervision, and thereby included in the dam register held by NVE, are approximately 2600. More than 290 of these dams are classified as class 3 dams, and 335 are large dams (height > 15 m). The dam register also include some technical data for other structures such as intake structures, penstocks, tunnels and canals.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hydroelectric_power_stations_in_Norway

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_power_stations_in_Norway

 

 ေရအားကေနျပီးလွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားထုတ္လုပ္ေနတဲ့

စက္ရုံေတြရဲ့အေျချပဇယား

Hydroelectric

Station

Location

Geographical coordinates

Capacity (MW)

Status

Alta Hydroelectric Power Station

Alta

pastedGraphic.pdf69.7050116°N 23.8187027°E

150

Operational

Aura Hydroelectric Power Station

Sunndal

290

Operational

Aurland Hydroelectric Power Station

Aurland

1,128

Operational

Bratsberg Hydroelectric Power Station

Trondheim

124

Operational

Brokke Hydroelectric Power Station

Valle

330

Operational

Byrte Hydroelectric Power Station

Tokke

Operational

Evanger Hydroelectric Power Station

Voss

330

Operational

Finndøla Hydroelectric Power Station

Fyresdal

108

Operational

Fortun Hydroelectric Power Station

Luster

254

Operational

Hjartdøla Hydroelectric Power Station

Hjartdal

104

Operational

Hylen Hydroelectric Power Station

Suldal

160

Operational

Kvilldal Hydroelectric Power Station

Suldal

pastedGraphic_1.pdf59.484444°N 6.672222°E ; pastedGraphic_2.pdf59.528889°N 6.6538889°E

1,240

Operational

Lysebotn Hydroelectric Power Station

Forsand

210

Operational

Matre Hydroelectric Power Station

Masfjorden

246

Operational

Mauranger Hydroelectric Power Station

Kvinnherad

250

Operational

Mår Hydroelectric Power Station

Tinn

180

Operational

Nea Hydroelectric Power Station

Tydal

175

Operational

Nes Hydroelectric Power Station

Nes

250

Operational

Nore Hydroelectric Power Station

Nore og Uvdal

204 + 52

Operational

Nygårds Hydroelectric Power Station

Narvik

pastedGraphic_3.pdf68.4758333°N 17.6258333°E

75

Operational

Rana Hydroelectric Power Station

Rana

500

Operational

Saurdal Hydroelectric Power Station

Suldal

640

Operational

Sildvik Hydroelectric Power Station

Narvik

pastedGraphic_4.pdf68.4108333°N 17.8008333°E

72

Operational

Sima Hydroelectric Power Station

Eidfjord

500 + 620

Operational

Svartisen Hydroelectric Power Station

Meløy

600

Operational

Svelgfoss Hydroelectric Power Station

Notodden

92

Operational

Såheim Hydroelectric Power Station

Rjukan

185

Operational

Tjodan Hydroelectric Power Station

Forsand

110

Operational

Tokke Hydroelectric Power Station

Tokke

430

Operational

Tonstad Hydroelectric Power Station

Tonstad

960

Operational

Tunnsjødal Hydroelectric Power Station

Namsskogan

176

Operational

Tyin Hydroelectric Power Station

Årdal

380

Operational

Tyssedal Hydroelectric Power Station

Odda

Museum

Vamma Hydroelectric Power Station

Østfold

215

Operational

Vinje Hydroelectric Power Station

Vinje

300

Operational

================

 

 ေနာ္ေဝနဲ႕အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံအၾကားဓာတ္ၾကိဳးလိုင္းစံနစ္Grid

 norgrid1

Norway and the North Sea Grid 

 

 =========  

 ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံကယူေက၊ဂ်ာမဏီ၊ဆြီဒင္၊ေဟာ္လန္၊ပိုလန္၊႐ုရွား၊ျပင္သစ္

စတဲ့အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံတို႕နဲ႕လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားအေရာင္းအဝယ္လုပ္ဘို႕

ဓာတ္ၾကိဳးလိုင္းစံနစ္Grid ေတြကိုသြယ္တန္းထားတာ၊

 

လ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားျပန္ဝယ္တာရွိေသာ္လည္းအိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံေတြကို

 အေရာင္းတင္လႊတ္တာကမ်ားတာပါ၊

=========== 

Figure 3: Existing and Planned Interconnections

http://www.sefep.eu/activities/publications-1/Norway%20and%20the%20North%20Sea%20Grid%20-%20SEFEP%20working%20paper.pdf

In collaboration with foreign partners, Statnett is developing new interconnections to the United Kingdom and Germany. Statnett plans to finish one of these two interconnections in 2018 and the second in 2021. Taken together with the new South-­‐Scandinavian connections this implies an increase of 4000 MW, which will double the Norwegian export/import capacity (table B).

=========

 

ပင္လယ္ေအာက္ကလက္ရွိေရနံနဲ႕ဓာတ္ေငြ႕ပိုက္လိုင္းေတြ

 

norgas

 

 

 

ပင္လယ္ေအာက္မွာပိုက္လိုင္းေတြခင္းျပီး

သယံဇာတျဖစ္ၾကတဲ့ေရနံနဲ႕ဓာတ္ေငြ႕ေတြကိုလဲ

အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံေတြကိုတင္ေရာင္းတာပါ

http://www.sefep.eu/activities/publications-1/Norway%20and%20the%20North%20Sea%20Grid%20-%20SEFEP%20working%20paper.pdf

The gas sector has to a large extent built up a North Sea Super Grid to facilitate gas transport which trumps electricity infrastructure. This includes a network of pipelines with a length totaling more than 7975 km, and with a transport capacity of about 120 billion scm per year. There are four receiving terminals for Norwegian gas on the Continent; two in Germany, one in Belgium and one in France. In addition, there are two receiving terminals in the UK (figure 7).

———

Norway Heads for Record Electricity Exports Amid Water Glut

Norway Heads for Record Electricity Exports Amid Water Glut – Bloomberg

ဒီႏွစ္ကေရအားေကာင္းျပီးလွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားကို

တိုးထုတ္ႏိုင္မွာျဖစ္လို႕ေနာ္ေဝအတြက္ေတာ့

“ပြ” ေပါက္ပါဘဲ

Norway’s power exports may hit a record this year, amid abundant hydroelectric output and rain, evidencing a need for more cross-border cables for trade, Energy Norway said today.

The country has so far this year shipped a net power glut of 17 terawatt-hours abroad, worth nearly 4 billion Norwegian kroner ($ 694 million) and equivalent to half of yearly domestic electricity use, with exports for the year poised to exceed a record 19 terawatt-hours from 12 years ago, the industry association said in an e-mailed statement.

Norway’s water reservoirs are filled to the brim, and the glut can’t be absorbed by domestic demand, so without exports, the operators of hydropower plants would be forced to spill the surplus into the sea, Oluf Ulseth, chief executive officer of Energy Norway said in the statement.

Running water through turbines provides 99 percent of Norwegian electricity consumption, which exposes it to volatile weather factors, with dry spells triggering power imports and wet periods resulting in exports. This shows a need for more power cables to boost trade with neighboring countries, the association said.

Planned power cables set to link Norway to Germany and the U.K. must benefit the country, and not be used purely for cheap electricity exports, if they are built, Ola Borten Moe, oil minister said on Oct. 18.

The boost in water supplies has benefited the country’s leading hydropower operators, Statkraft AS and Norsk Hydro ASA (NHY), while record Swedish water supplies have boosted output for the Nordic region’s biggest utility Vattenfall AB and Finland’s biggest power company Fortum Oyj (FUM1V), both reported last month in their third-quarter earnings statements.

The glut of water supplies has cut average price for day- ahead power in the region by 38 percent from the same period of 2011 this year to a five-year low of 29.92 euros ($38.11) a megawatt-hour in the Nordic market, which covers Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland, according to data from the Nord Pool Spot AS exchange in Oslo.

——————

===========

ယူေကနဲ႕ေနာ္ေဝအၾကား၊ကမ္ဘာမွာအရွည္လ်ားဆုံး

ပင္လယ္ေအာက္လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားပို႕Cable ေကဘဲဓာတ္ၾကိဳး

သစ္ေတြခင္းဘို႕စီမံ (၂၀၀၉ကသတင္း)

===========

National Grid plans world’s longest underwater power cable between Britain and Norway – Telegraph

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/6266443/National-Grid-plans-worlds-longest-underwater-power-cable-between-Britain-and-Norway.html

 

 ==========
လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားတိုးျပီးတင္ပို႕ႏိုင္ဘို႕ဓာတ္ၾကိဳးလိုင္းသစ္ေတြ အတြက္ေပါင္စတာလင္ေငြ 
သန္းတေထာင္ကုန္က်မွာကိုေနာ္ေဝနဲ႕ယူေကအဖြဲ႕ေတြ ကတဝက္စီက်ခံမယ္လို႕
(၂၀၀၉ ကထဲက) စာခ်ဳပ္
==========

National Grid, the UK’s network operator, yesterday made an agreement with its Norwegian equivalent, Statnett, to draw up proposals for a link-up that is likely to cost around £1bn.

Under the preliminary agreement, the two grid operators would each hold a 50pc stake in the project, after feasibility studies suggested that the cable would be economically and technically viable.

Part of the plan involves locating wind turbinesalong the route to provide top-up power and connecting to oil and gas platforms to provideelectricity.

The two countries are a good energy match, because Norway’s gets most of its electricity from hydropower stations and the UK is planning to build more wind farms.

A cable link-up could help solve the problem of wind power intermittency, where Norwegian hydropower could act as back-up for the UK in return for electricity on windy days

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  ၂၀၁၂ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၁၅ မွ ၂၂ အထိေနာ္ေဝမွာလႈပ္ခါခဲ့တဲ့ငလ်င္ေတြရဲ့ဇယား

 

  

တပတ္မွာေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားလႈပ္ခါတာျဖစ္ေပမဲ့

ငလ်င္ေတြကိုတိုင္းတဲ့ ရစ္တာေပၾကိဳးသိထားလို႕

ေၾကာက္စရာမလိုပါ၊

ညာဘက္အစြန္းကဇယားတန္းကိုၾကည့္လိုက္ရင္  

Magဆိုလို႕ရစ္တာ ၃.၀၉နဲ႕ေအာက္ျဖစ္တာေတြ႕ရပါ့မယ္၊

လႈပ္တာကိုကမသိသာေလာက္ပါ၊

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neq5neq6

Automatic NORSAR GBF solutions 15/12/2012-22/12/2012

NORSAR – Recent eartquakes in and around Norway

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neq3

Strongest earthquake in years hits northwest of Norway, no damage | MI News 26

http://www.minews26.com/content/?p=17093

 

 

Strongest earthquake in years hits northwest of Norway, no damage

POSTED MAY 25, 2012 BY BNO NEWS  1 COMMENT

 

 

မိုင္ေပါင္း ၃၇၃ ေဝးတဲ့ေနာ္ေဝပင္လယ္တေနရာက ရစ္တာ ၆.၂ ငလ်င္ျဖစ္ျပီး 

ေနာ္ေဝရဲ့မေရွးမေနာင္းမီကာလမွာအျပင္းထန္ဆုံးျဖစ္ေပမဲ့ေဝးလံတာရယ္၊

ရစ္တာ ၇.၀ ေအာက္ဆိုရင္ငလ်င္ၾကီးမဟုတ္ေၾကာင္းသိထားတာရယ္ျဖစ္လို႕

စိုးရိမ္စရာမရွိေၾကာင္းပါ၊

 

 OSLO, NORWAY (BNO NEWS) — A strong earthquake struck the Norwegian Sea northwest of Norway on late Thursday evening, making it one of the strongest tremors to hit the region in recent years, seismologists said on Friday. There were no reports of damage or casualties.

The 6.2-magnitude earthquake at 10:47 p.m. local time (2247 GMT) was centered in the Norwegian Sea about 600 kilometers (373 miles) northwest of Tromsø, a city in Troms county in northern Norway. It struck about 8.8 kilometers (5.5 miles) deep, making it an extremely shallow earthquake, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said there was a small possibility of a local tsunami due to the shallow depth of the earthquake, but no unusual waves were observed on nearby coastlines. “A destructive tsunami threat does not exist based on historical earthquake and tsunami data,” the center said in a bulletin.

Geoscience Australia said very light shaking may have been felt as far away as the Norwegian island of Jan Mayen, a small region of mainland Norway, and a tiny part of the thinly populated Svalbard archipelago. But the USGS, on the other hand, said this was unlikely due to the earthquake’s distance from those locations. There were no known reports of anyone having felt the earthquake.

 

 

 ၂၀၀၈ က ရစ္တာ ၆.၂ နဲ႕တခါ

၁၈၁၉ ကရစ္တာ ၅.၈ နဲ႕တခါရွိခဲ့ျပီး

လူေတြေသတာမရွိခဲ့ပါ၊

(ရစ္တာ ၇.၀ေအာက္မွာပါ၊)

 In February 2008, a strong 6.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic, making it the largest earthquake in Norwegian history but causing no damage or casualties. A 5.8-magnitude earthquake which struck the coast of central Norway in August 1819 caused landslides, rock slides and a small tsunami.

 

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neq4

Earthquakes in Norway

http://www.kriseinfo.no/en/Natural/Earthquakes/Earthquakes-in-Norway/

08.11.2012

 

 

 

 ေနာ္ေဝဟာေျမထုTectonicsအခ်ပ္ျပားၾကီးေတြရဲ့

အစြန္အျဖားမွာျဖစ္ေစ၊အနားမွာဘဲျဖစ္ေစတည္ရွိေနတာမဟုတ္ဘဲ၊

လုံျခဳံေလာက္တဲ့ေျမထုေနရာမွာတည္ရွိတာပါ၊

သို႕ေသာ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းဥေရာပတိုက္မွာဆိုရင္ေနာ္ေဝက

ငလ်င္လႈပ္ခါတာမ်ားတဲ့ေနရာမွာတည္ရွိေနတာ၊

 

The most active earthquake areas are on or near the boundaries of tectonic plates. Norway is located at a safe distance from such an active tectonic border, but it is still one of the most active areas in Northern Europe when it comes to earthquake activity.

 

Each year, several earthquakes occur in Norway and adjacent areas. The most active earthquake areas are Nordland county, Western Norway and the North Sea; but Eastern Norway and Finnmark can also experience many earthquakes.

 

 

   

ငလ်င္လႈပ္ခါတာကအသင့္အသင့္တာရွိျပီးလူသူေတြကသိသာရုံေလာက္ပါဘဲ

 

ရာဇဝင္မွတ္တမ္းအရ ရစ္တာ ၅ နဲ႕ ၆ အၾကားမွာျဖစ္ၾကလို႕

လူေသတာပစ္စည္းအၾကီးအက်ယ္ပ်က္စီးတာမေတြ႕ရပါ၊

 Earthquake activity in and near Norway is moderate, but can be noticeable to humans. Historically speaking, the most powerful earthquakes in Norway have a registered strength of between 5 and 6, but there is no confirmation of whether any of these earthquakes have caused fatalities or significant damage.

 

Norsar အဖြဲ႕နဲ႕Bergen တက္ကသိုလ္တို႕က 

ငလ်င္ေတြကိုအျမဲအကဲခတ္ေစာင့္ၾကပ္ေပးေနၾကတာပါ

 

Earthquake activity in Norway is monitored by NORSAR and the Earthquake Station at the University of Bergen.

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၁၉၀၀ မွ ယေန႕ထိေနာ္ေဝငလ်င္ေျမပုံ

(၁၁၂ ႏွစ္ေက်ာ္ကာလအတြင္းကေနာ္ေဝငလ်င္ေတြရဲ့ေျမပံုျမင္ကြင္းက်ယ္)

neq

 

 

  အဝိုင္းလုံးၾကီးက ရစ္တာ ၅.၅ နဲ႕အထက္ပါ၊ 

  (အဝိုင္းလုံးေသးေလေကာင္းေလ၊ငလ်င္အင္အားနဲေလ)

အနီေရာင္ကေျမျပင္ေပၚကေနသုည မွ ၆.၉ ကီလိုမီတာထိနက္႐ိႈင္းတာပါ

(တိမ္တာမေကာင္း၊နက္ေလေကာင္းေလ၊ငလ်င္အင္အားနဲေလ)

 

လိုရင္းက ရစ္တာ ၇.၀ ငလ်င္ၾကီးေတြမရွိတာပါ

Norway

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/norway/seismicity.php

neq2

ေနာ္ေဝရဲ့ငလ်င္ အန္တရာယ္ေျမပံု

Norway

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/norway/gshap.php

အဝါေရာင္က ၁.၆၊ အစိမ္းရင့္ေရာင္က ၀.၈ ျဖစ္လို႕

ေနာ္ေဝဟာငလ်င္အန္တရာယ္ေတာ္ေတာ္သက္သာတာပါ၊

(US ေျမငလ်င္ဌာနကပုံေတြပါ)

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