ဦးထြန္းလြင္ကယန္ဇီျမစ္နဲ႕အျခားျမစ္ၾကီးခုႏွစ္စင္းေကာသြားတယ္လို႕
မဟုတ္မမွန္ေဟာေျပာခဲ့တယ္၊ေျခာက္ႏွစ္ၾကာခဲ့ေပျပီ၊ယေန႕ထိအဆိုပါျမစ္ေတြက
မေကာေသးတဲ့အျပင္၊တခ်ိဳ႕ကေတာင္ေရၾကီးေနတာကိုဓာတ္ပံုနဲ႕တကြေခ်ပရွင္းလင္းခဲ့တယ္

 

၊ယန္ဇီျမစ္ေပၚကခ်ံုကင္းနဲ႕နန္ဂ်င္းျမိဳ႕ေတြကျမစ္ေရမတိမ္ေကာ၊အမိႈက္ေတြနဲ႕ညစ္ညမ္းပိတ္ဆို႕တာလဲ
မရွိေၾကာင္းလိုက္ျပခဲ့တယ္၊

 

 

(ရက္စက္ၾကမ္းၾကဳတ္လွတဲ့ဖက္စစ္ဂ်ပန္တို႕ရဲ့ျဖဳတ္ထုတ္သတ္႕ျပာပုံေလာင္ရိပ္ကေနအဆိုပါျမိဳ႕ၾကီးေတြျပန္
လဲထူေထာင္လာပုံကိုၾကံုရင္းတင္ျပခဲ့တယ္၊ဦးထြန္းလြင္ရဲ့Egypt Nileအီဂ်စ္ကႏိုင္ျမစ္ေရကာတာလြဲမွားခ်က္ကိုရွင္းလင္းျပီးရင္နန္ဂ်င္းဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုး 

တက္လာပံုအလွဓာတ္ပံုေတြကိုေအာက္နားမွာဆက္႐ႉစားႏိုင္ပါတယ္)

(၊ျမစ္ေတြမတိမ္ေကာလို႕ျမိဳ႕ေတြကလဲစည္ကားေနၾကတာပါ၊)

 

(မိုးဘယ္ေတာ့ရြာမယ္ဆိုတာကိုခြန္းၾကဴပါ့ဖားရယ္လုပ္ေနဘို႕မလိုပါ၊)

 

(၎ျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္အထင္အရွားကိုမ်က္ကြယ္ျပဳၾကသူတို႕ရဲ့စကားကိုယံုရင္တိုင္းျပည္ကတိုးတက္မွာ မ ဟုတ္ပါ
ျပည္သူေတြမြဲေတေနၾကမွာပါ)

 

==========================

 

 

 

ဦးထြန္းလြင္ကEgyptအီဂ်စ္ေရကာတာေဆာက္လို႕ရႊံ႕ႏႊန္ႏွုန္းေျမမရျဖစ္ျပီး
၊ျမစ္ဝကေရငံဝင္လို႕စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးပ်က္၊ျမစ္ဝအရပ္ပါၾကံု႕မယ္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊
ေသာက္သုံးေရလဲ မ ရမွာျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ေဟာခဲ့ပါတယ္၊(အထက္ပါပုံ)

 

 


 

High Aswan Dam၊ေရကာတာရဲ့အက်ိဳးေက်းဇူးအေၾကာင္းေဆာင္းပါးကိုေရအားသံယံဇာတဝန္ၾကီး နဲ႕ဝန္ၾကီးဌာန
အၾကံေပးအရာရွိကေရးၾကတယ္၊
သူတို႕ႏွစ္ဦးစလုံးကေရအားေရသံဇာတဘာသာမွာကြၽမ္းက်င္သူသုေတတီေတြပါ၊

 

ေဆာင္းပါးLinkလင့္ အျပင္၊ေကာက္ႏုက္ခ်က္လဲတင္ထားတယ္၊အျခားအလားတူေဆာင္းပါးလဲရွိတယ္၊
လိုရင္းကႏွုန္းေျမေတြအားလုံးေရကာတာမွာက်န္ရစ္တာမဟုတ္၊တခ်ိဳ႕ဆက္စီးလိုက္ပါသြားပါတယ္၊

 

Nile၊ႏိုင္ျမစ္ေရကာတာလုပ္လို႕ႏွုန္းေျမမရျဖစ္ကာစိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက်ခဲ့တယ္လို႕ေျပာရင္မမွန္ပါ.

Nile၊ႏိုင္ျမစ္ကသယ္လာတဲ့ႏွုန္းေျမဩဇာက(ထင္သလိုမဟုတ္ဘဲ)အာနိသင္နဲပါတယ္၊နဂိုရ္ကအားနဲေနျပီးသား၊

 

(၊တ႐ုပ္ေရကာတာေတြကႏွုန္းေျမေတြကိုထုတ္လႊတ္ေနတဲ့ပုံေတြကိုလဲေရွ႕ေဆာင္းပါးမွာၾကည့္ႏိုင္တယ္၊ေရွ႕ပိုင္း
ကအီဂ်စ္တို႕အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံတို႕ရဲ့ေရကာတာေတြနဲ႕မတူပါ၊ႏိႈင္းလို႕ဆြဲေျပာလို႕မရပါ)

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

Abu-Zeid, M. A., and F. Z. El-Shibini. “Egypt’s High Aswan Dam.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 13.2 (1997): 209-218. 2 Mar. 2006 <http://www.lib.ncsu.edu:2053/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=7620462>.

Abu-Zeid, M. A., & El-Shibini, F. Z. (1997). Egypt’s high Aswan dam. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 13(2), 209-218. Retrieved March 2, 2006, from HYPERLINK “http://www.lib.ncsu.edu:2053/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=7620462” http://www.lib.ncsu.edu:2053/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=7620462

This article was written for a scholarly journal by two experts in the field of water resource development: an advisor (El-Shibini) to the National Water Research Center, an organization within Egypt’s Ministry of Public Works for Water Resources, of which the other (Abu-Zeid) is Minister. Rigorous and in depth, it details the benefits of the Aswan High Dam, providing technical data on social and economic impacts, including water security and availability, land reclamation, conversion of irrigation, increases in crop yield, hydropower output, and improvements in navigation and tourism. Biased towards the dam’s success, it briefly reports the results of favorable studies meant to answer some of the dam’s initial criticisms, such as silt and sediment trapping, degradation and erosion, water quality, and waterborne diseases. Although technical in detail, the language is not difficult. The article provides a useful selection of facts and figures collected 25 years after completion of the dam.

iteseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.556.2658&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

ဦးထြန္းလြင္ကေဟာသလိုမဟုတ္ပါ၊အဆိုပါအီဂ်စ္သုေတတီစာေရးသူကေလာင္ရွင္ေတြအရ၊

 

၊ေရကာတာလုပ္လို႕၁၉၇၀ဆယ္စုႏွစ္အျမီးပိုင္းကအစဥ္တဆက္ေရးေဘးသင့္ျခင္း၊
၁၉၈၀ဆယ္စုႏွစ္၊အလယ္ပိုင္းေတြမွာေရေခါင္းပါးေျခာက္ေသြ႕ျခင္း၊ကပ္ေတြဆိုက္မွာ
ကိုေအာင္ျမင္စြာေက်ာ္လႊားကယ္တင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့တယ္၊

(၂၅ႏွစ္ၾကာကာလတေလွ်ာက္လုံးကိုသုေတသီကြၽမ္းက်င္သူမ်ား
ကသုံးသပ္ေနတာေနာ္၊တာဝန္ရွိဝန္ၾကီးအဆင့္အေနအထားလဲဟုတ္တယ္ 

မသိဘဲနဲ႕ကြက္ကြက္ျပီးေျပာတာမေကာင္းပါ)

 

 

 

M. A. ABU-ZEID & F. Z. EL-SHIBINI

Fum Ismailiya Canal Shoubra El-Khima, Box 74, Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT History tells us that Egypt’s fertile land is the gift of the Nile. However,for the ® rst time in history, full control of the Nile water was achieved in 1970 after the construction of the High Aswan Dam (HAD). The HAD is a multipurpose project for sustainable irrigation development,hydropower,navigation improvementetc. Different schools of thought appeared before and after the HAD projectÐ optimistic,pessimistic and neutral. However, the anticipated bene® ts and side-effects have provided clear and obvious facts in response to the different ideas after more than 25 years of operation. The HAD saved Egypt twice during the project’s life (a) from a dangerous ̄ flood series which occurred in the late 1970s,and (b) from severe droughtsin the mid-1980s.As with other large projects, some side-effects have occurred, as anticipated, but the bene® ts far exceed these side-effects. There is no doubt that the HAD is the cornerstone for Egypt’s sustainable agricultural plans and many other developments.In this paper documented facts are given relevant to HAD water allocations for the sake of the welfare of Egypt’s future generations. These will include the realized true bene® ts and side-effects of the HAD.


 

 

lthough the decision taken was based on studies carried out by worldwide experts, in all ® elds and issues related to dam engineering, river and water management, social, economic and environmental aspects, there had been hot debates and controversies about the project from the outset.

0790-0627/97/020209± 09 $7.00 Ó 1997 Carfax Publishing Ltd

210 M. A. Abu-Zeid & F. Z. El-Shibini

Luckily the Egyptian leadership and decision makers, supported by solid justi® cation for the vitality and importance of the project for the welfare of the Egyptian people, decided to go ahead in constructing the project. Taking the achievements and impacts of the High Aswan Dam (HAD) over more than 30 years, it was proved that HAD had been the cornerstone in Egypt’s economic and social development and that criticisms and opposition to the project were groundless, and most of the con ̄ icts were inspired by political, ideological and emotional disputes, and unbalanced or lack of objectivity and knowledge.

 

(၊ေသခ်ာမေလ့လာမသိဘဲနဲ႕ႏိုင္ငံေရးအယူမတူညီလို႕တခ်ိဳ႕လူေတြကစိတ္လိုက္မာန္ပါအာလူးေပးအေျခအတင္အတိုက္အခံလုပ္ေနတာပါ)

ICOLD၊ႏိုင္ငံတကာေရကာတာအသင္းၾကီးက၊ေရကာတာကိုစီစစ္ေထာက္ခံခဲ့တယ္၊ Excellentအလြန္ေကာင္းဆိုျပီးလုံးဝေထာက္ခံမွတ္ခ်က္ျပဳခဲ့တယ္၊
(ဒိအျပင္အေမရိကန္နဲ႕႐ုရွားကေထာက္ခံခဲ့တယ္၊အီဂ်စ္သမတနာဆာNasserကအေမရိကန္ကိုဆဲလြန္းလို႕အေမရိကန္ကမလုပ္ေပးဘဲ၊
႐ုရွားကဝင္လုပ္ေပးခဲ့တယ္၊)

 

These ® ndings were evident in the outcome of the Executive Meeting of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), held in Cairo 1993, where the environmental, social and economic aspects of the HAD were thoroughly discussed by worldwide experts, who gave support to the HAD as a vital achievement in a documented report and certi® cate of excellency.

မူလရည္ရြယ္တာက

The main aims of the construction of the High Aswan Dam can be summa- rized as follows:

 

 Nile ၊ႏိုင္ျမစ္ကိုအျပည့္အဝထိန္းမယ္

full control of the Nile ̄ ow at Aswan in the far south of Egypt;

 

ေရလိုအပ္ခ်က္အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကိုမွ်တေအာင္ျဖည့္တင္းမယ္

regulation of the discharge downstream of the dam to match the actual water needs for different requirements;

 

၊ေရေဘးနဲ႕ေရရွားပါးေျခာက္ေသြ႕မႈဒဏ္ကိုကာကြယ္မယ္

 

protection of the Nile Valley and Delta from high ̄ floods and drought hazards that could persist for several consecutive years;

 

သက္သာေခ်ာင္ခ်ိျပီးသန္႕စင္(သန္႕ရွင္း)တဲ့ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုရယူမယ္ 

generation of cheap and clean hydroelectric power;

 

(၊ဆည္ေျမာင္းလုပ္ျပီးေရပို႕ျခင္းျဖင့္)လယ္ယာေျမကိုတိုးခ်ဲ႕မယ္၊

realization of horizontal land expansion by reclaiming new lands;

 

၊ႏွစ္သီးစာသံုးသီးစာရေအာင္လုပ္မယ္

change in the system of basin irrigation (one crop per year), to perennial irrigation (two or more crops per year);

 

ဆန္စပါးနဲ႕ၾကံခင္းေတြကိုတိုးစိုက္ႏိုင္ျခင္းျဖင့္သြင္းယူရတဲ့ပမာဏတာကိုကန္႕သတ္မယ္

 

expansion in rice and sugar-cane cultivation to limit imports;

 

ေရလမ္းသြားလာေရးလမ္းေၾကာင္းပိုေကာင္းေအာင္လုပ္ႏိုင္မယ္

improvement of navigation through the Nile and navigable canals; and realization of great ̄ exibility in agricultural planning, crop patterns and intensi® ed agriculture.

 


 

Increase in Irrigated Land Yield

The controlling of the River Nile ̄ ow by the HAD has secured a steady and continuous ̄ ow of water in adequate quantities that reaches all the arable land at the right time, particularly in summer when the natural ̄ ow of the Nile is much less than irrigation requirements.

This availability of water has secured ̄ exibility of agricultural planning, crop patterns and crop rotation. As a result, the cropping area has risen to about 14.0 million acres compared with about 9.3 million acres in 1952. The yield production per feddan (acre) has increased tremendously since construction of the HAD.

Egypt’s High Aswan Dam 211

212 M. A. Abu-Zeid & F. Z. El-Shibini Increase in Rice and Sugar-cane Areas

 

High Aswan Dam  ၊ေရကာတာဆည္လုပ္စဥ္ကဆန္စပါးစိုက္ခင္းကိုဧက ၂သိန္းမွဧက ၇သိန္းထိတိုးဘို႕ရည္မွန္းေသာ္လည္း၊ဒီရည္မွန္းခ်က္ကိုေတာင္ေက်ာ္ခဲ့ျပီးဆန္စပါးတန္ခ်ိန္၄သန္းကိုထုတ္လုပ္ႏိုင္ခဲ့တယ္၊

To satisfy crop requirements for local consumption, and the limitation of imports, it was possible to increase the areas cultivated with rice and sugar-cane. With regard to rice, it was estimated during the planning phase of the HAD to increase the area from 200 000 acres to 700 000 acres. In fact, this acreage has been surpassed with production of about 4 million tons of rice.

 

၊ၾကံစိုက္ခင္းတြတ္ကဧက ၉၂၀၀၀ မွဧက ၂၇၅၀၀၀ ထိတိုးလာျပီဧက ၇၀၀၀၀၀ အထိမွာကန္႕သတ္ရေတာ့မွာ

 

(ဦးထြန္းလြင္ကပါရဂူဘြဲ့ရဆိုလို႕ဒီအေၾကာင္းကိုမေလ့လာမိလို႕ဘဲလားေမးစရာရွိတယ္)

Land under sugar-cane production has also increased from 92 000 acres in 1952 to 275 000 acres. The sugar factories in Upper Egypt are now working at full capacity and have been newly extended. There is now a trend to expand sugar beet to replace sugar-cane gradually to save water consumption, and also to limit the area of rice to 700 000 acres.

 


 

Chapter 17
Impacts of the High Aswan Dam

Asit K. Biswas and Cecilia Tortajada

Thus, our focus has been to assess appropriate impacts, especially environmental and social, about which there has been considerable global controversy ever since the construc- tion of the dam was initiated.

The importance of the dam to Egypt’s economic survival was clearly demonstrated, at least qualitatively, during the 1980s. It is not too difficult to hypothesise what would have happened to the Egyptian economy and socio-political conditions if the dam had not been there to protect the country from, first, the potentially catastrophic impacts of a prolonged drought from 1979 to 1986, and immediately thereafter the abnormally high summer flood of 1988, which had devastating effects on Egypt’s upstream neigh- bour on the Nile Basin, Sudan. Even with the Aswan High Dam in place, Egypt had come perilously close to experiencing the catastrophic impacts of the drought by early 1988, due to a dangerously low water level in Lake Nasser.

============

 

နန္ဂ်င္းအေၾကာင္းဆက္ရေအာင္

 

၊ေၾကာက္တတ္သူေတြပံုေတြကိုမၾကည့္ဘဲေက်ာ္လိုက္ပါ၊


 

ဘီလူးစိတ္ဝင္ဖက္စစ္ဂ်ပန္စစ္သားက ခေလးကိုအေပၚျပစ္ျပီး
ခေလးျပန္အက်မွာလွံစြပ္နဲ႕ထိုးသတ္ခဲ့တယ္၊

 

အျပစ္မဲ့အရပ္သားေခါင္းလုံးေရတစ္ရာရေအာင္ျပိဳင္ပြဲလုပ္
အေပ်ာ္က်ဴးတဲ့ဂ်ပန္ဖက္စစ္ဗိုလ္စုတ္ႏွစ္ဦး

 

အျပစ္မဲ့အရပ္သားေတြကိုအရွင္လပ္လပ္ေျမျမႇဳပ္သတ္

 


 


 

 

အရပ္သားေတြကိုေလယာဥ္နဲ႕စက္ေသနတ္ျပစ္

The photos have proved that the Japanese forces bombed Nanjing city starting from mid-August in 1937, months before the massacre in Dec 13.

Bombing of Nanjing
15 Aug 1937-31 Dec 1937

 

 

၁၉၃၇ ဩဂုတ္လကုန္ခါနီးအပိုင္းကစ ၁၉၃၇ ဒီဇင္ဘာလလယ္ထိ

ေလယာဥ္နဲ႕ဗုံးၾကဲ

 

အရပ္သားေနရပ္ကြက္ေတြေတာ္ေတာ္ပ်က္စီးဆုံးရွုံး

စက္တင္ဘာ ၂၅ ရက္မွာ ၉၅ ၾကိမ္ၾကဲျပီး ဗုံးလုံးေရ ၅၀၀ ၾကဲခ် ကာအရပ္သား ၇၀၀ ေသးဆုံးခဲ့တယ္၊

 

 

စြမ္းအားေပးစက္ရုံ၊ေရေပးစက္ရုံ၊ေရဒီယိုအသံလႊင့္ရုံ၊ေဆးရုံေတြကိုလဲဦးတည္ျပီးၾကဲ

ww2dbaseBombing of Nanjing, the capital of China, began in late Aug 1937. On 21 Sep, the Japanese Army Air Service under Prince Naruhiko ordered a renewed aerial campaign against the city. The residential districts in southern Nanjing suffered heavy damage in late Sep, with the greatest loss on 25 Sep when Japanese bombers made 95 sorties between 0930 and 1630 hours, dropping 500 bombs and causing 600 civilian casualties. During this aerial campaign, power plants, water works, the radio station, and the Central Hospital were also targeted. Air raids on Nanjing began to cease as the Battle of Nanjing began in Dec 1937.–


 

 

လူေတြသိန္းခ်ီေသ၊ျမိဳ႕ကေတာ္ေတာ္ေၾကမြပ်က္စီးသြားတာေၾကာင့္နန္ဂ်င္းက
နလံထူဘို႕ႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ(၊ႏွစ္ဆယ္လီနဲ႕ခ်ီျပီး)ၾကာခဲ့တယ္၊

 

၊ခုဆိုရင္ နန္ဂ်င္းကေခတ္မွီတဲ့စက္မႈထြန္းကားရာျမိဳ႕ၾကီးျဖစ္လာျပီ၊

History Channel

…..Once one of China’s most prosperous cities and industrial centers, Nanking took decades to recover from the devastation it experienced. Abandoned as the national capital in 1949 for Beijing, it grew into a modern industrial city during the communist period and today is home to many of China’s largest state-owned firms.

 

(၊ပံုေတြကိုClick ကလစ္လုပ္ရင္ပုံၾကီးျမင္ႏိုင္တယ္)

 


 

ပင္ရင္းျမိဳ႕ေဟာင္းအရပ္မ်ား


 


 


 

 



ကမ႓ာမွာဒုတိယအျမင့္ဆုံးအေဆာက္အဦးZifeng Tower


 

တကၠသိုလ္ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားသဟာယအသင္းတိုက္

 

နန္ဂ်င္းအစုလိုက္အျပံုလိုက္သတ္တဲ့အမွတ္တရအေဆာက္အအုံ

 

လူေနအိမ္ရပ္ကြက္

 


 

နန္ဂ်င္းကမ္းေျခကည႐ႈခင္း


 

မိုးေမ်ာ္တိုက္ေတြျဖစ္လာ

 

၊ေတာေတာင္သစ္ပင္ပန္းမာလ္တို႕ရဲ့အလွ

 

ကြန္ဖူးရွပ္သုခမိန္ေက်ာင္းထိန္ထိန္လင္း

 

 

၊ျမိဳ႕လယ္က႐ႈခင္းအလွ
၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ေတြဖူလံုလို႕ထိန္ထိန္လင္း၊

 

အားက်စရာ၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္က ဖေယာင္းတိုင္မီးထက္ကုန္က်စားရိတ္သက္သာျပီးမီးေလာင္ကြၽမ္းမႈအႏၲရာယ္လဲသက္သာ၊

(ဖေယာင္းတိုင္နဲ႕ေနႏိုင္သူေတြသိသာရန္)

ဖေယာင္းတိုင္မီးကစက္ရုံကိုမလည္ပတ္ေပးႏိုင္၊အလုပ္လက္မဲ့ျပသနာကိုမေျဖရွင္းေပးႏိုင္၊

 

 

 

၊ျမိဳ႕လယ္က႐ႈခင္းအလွ
၊ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ေတြဖူလံုလို႕ထိန္ထိန္လင္း၊

 

 

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